In this chapter I will cover how to construct the figure using some simplified methods to make the process of drawing a little easier. I will start by showing you how to build a simple structure as the basis for defining dimension and proportion. This structure will become the foundation of your figure drawings. You will then be able to use it to develop a finished figure drawing.
Drawing from the Inside Out
At the beginning of every figure drawing, the artist is faced with a daunting task in defining a subject that is painfully complex yet supremely organized. Without initially...
I would like to confess that at eighteen I suddenly fell in love with
Romanesque architecture, and the passion has stayed with me forever.
Unfortunately, while the last part of this statement may be true, the
ﬁrst part, however romantic, is fundamentally distorted. The under-
graduate art-history teachers at Columbia University initiated and
nourished my interest in Romanesque architecture, and thoroughly
shaped my approach to it. I must begin a book on this subject by thank-
Subjective & Objective terms the scoring methods
All tests subjectively constructed by the test writer
Objective tests: only one correct answer.
+ scored mechanically by computer
+ responsible for testing a large number
We give a new construction of the moonshine module vertex operator algebra V , which was originally constructed in [FLM2]. We construct it as a framed VOA over the real number ﬁeld R. We also oﬀer ways to transform a structure of framed VOA into another framed VOA. As applications, we study the ﬁve framed VOA structures on VE8 and construct many framed VOAs including V from a small VOA. One of the advantages of our construction is that we are able to construct V as a framed VOA with a positive deﬁnite invariant bilinear form and we...
Globalization has perhaps been the notion most widely used and debated by the
social sciences in the last decade of the twentieth century and in the first years of
the twenty-first. Subject to diverse and sometimes conflicting interpretations, the
concept has also been the target—as shown in Chap. 1—of harsh criticisms from
authors who have contested its real meaningfulness and extent.
We study the challenges raised by Arabic verb and subject detection and reordering in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We show that post-verbal subject (VS) constructions are hard to translate because they have highly ambiguous reordering patterns when translated to English. In addition, implementing reordering is difﬁcult because the boundaries of VS constructions are hard to detect accurately, even with a state-of-the-art Arabic dependency parser.
We present a human-robot dialogue system that enables a robot to work together with a human user to build wooden construction toys. We then describe a study in which na¨ve subjects interacted with this ı system under a range of conditions and then completed a user-satisfaction questionnaire. The results of this study provide a wide range of subjective and objective measures of the quality of the interactions.
The demand for newly constructing of drainage pumping station in Red river delta has increased recently. Total drainage volume for the whole region in 2006 was 2406.8m3/s, and it was predicted to increase to 5181.3m3/s in 2020 . The average drainage coefficient for the year from 2010 to 2020 will be 7.0 l/s per hectar, three and a haft time higher than the average drainage coefficient for the period from 1954 to 1973; 1.8 times higher than 1973 to 1976 and 1.3 times higher than 1976 to 2000. This article aims to provide the primary analysis of objective...
We describe a method for obtaining subject-dependent word sets relative to some (subjecO domain. Using the subject classifications given in the machine-readable version of Longman's Dictionary of Contemporary English, we established subject-dependent cooccurrence links between words of the defining vocabulary to construct these "neighborhoods". Here, we describe the application of these neighborhoods to information retrieval, and present a method of word sense disambiguation based on these co-occurrences, an extension of previous work. ...
Cognitive p r i n c i p l e s underlying the (re-)construction of word meaning and/or world knowledge structures are poorly understood yet. In a rather sharp departure from more orthodox lines of introspective acquisition of s t r u c t u r a l data on meaning and knowledge representation in cognitive science, an empirical approach is explored that analyses natural language data s t a t i s t i c a l l y , represents i t s numerical findings fuzzy-set t h e o r e t i c a...
In pro-drop languages, the detection of explicit subjects, zero subjects and nonreferential impersonal constructions is crucial for anaphora and co-reference resolution. While the identiﬁcation of explicit and zero subjects has attracted the attention of researchers in the past, the automatic identiﬁcation of impersonal constructions in Spanish has not been addressed yet and this work is the ﬁrst such study.
Every sentence has at least one verb. When you construct sentences, you have to pay
close attention to the verbs. You must choose the correct tense of the verb and make the
verb agree with its subject. The following discussion centers on these aspects of verbs. The
lesson ends with a review of some verb pairs that are especially troublesome.
Nearly one million weekly listeners trust NPR's Brooke Gladstone to guide them through the distortions and complexities of the modern media. This brilliant radio personality now bursts onto the page as an illustrated character in vivid comics drawn by acclaimed artist Josh Neufeld. The cartoon of Brooke conducts the reader through two millennia of history-from the newspapers in Caesar's Rome to the penny press of the American Revolution and the manipulations of contemporary journalism.
It is one thing to think that you know a subject but quite another to conﬁdently write it down, secure in the knowledge that no one will challenge you later. I deﬁnitely fall into the former category. I assert that there are no experts in completion design, but there are experts in specialities within completion design. It is to many of these experts that I have turned for guidance and veriﬁcation.
Tài liệu tham khảo giáo trình nhôm trong thiết kế xây dựng bằng tiếng anh - Chương 9
Tension and compression members
9.1 GENERAL APPROACH 9.1.1 Modes of failure This chapter covers the static design of members subjected to axial force either in tension (‘ties’) or in compression (‘struts’). The basic requirement is that the factored resistance should not be less than the tensile or compressive force (action-effect) arising in the member under factored loading.
This book is intended to provide the essential mathematics required by
construction craft students. It covers the learning outcomes of the math-
ematics part of the unit construction science and mathematics for the
BTEC First Diploma course in construction. The book is also intended
to help construction students studying the subject of analytical methods
in the BTEC National Diploma/Certiﬁcate in construction and BTEC
National Certiﬁcate in Civil Engineering, although these syllabuses are
not covered in their entirety....
The rock mass around an underground opening is subjected to a unique stress path that results in low radial
confinement and both tangential loading and unloading conditions near the wall. As a result, the rock
mass strength near underground excavations is controlled by failure mechanisms dominating at low confinement.
Hence, when constructing underground works in hard rock, two general scenarios are encountered:
(1) structurally controlled gravity-driven failures; and (2) stress-induced failure with spalling and
The collective load is the basis for determining the
average speeds (2,387 min–1) and the average driving
speed (111 km/h). For each of the load cases the tooth
load acting on the pinion and the reaction loads from
the bearings have to be calculated both for forward and
backward motion (percentage times 50 % each).
In addition to these forces, the bearings are subjected
to loads due to the rotor weight, the unbalanced magnetic
pull, unbalanced loads and rail shocks. Of these
loads only the rotor weight, GL, is known; therefore, it
is multiplied by a supplementary factor fz = 1.
Though there may be some controversy about the relative importance of financial incentives in
explaining trends in retirement in the U.S., the larger part of the European studies appear to more
. Most European studies point at strong incentive effects from Social Security and Early
Retirement schemes. This may be due to the strong disincentive effects that characterise most of these
We construct an exhaustive submeasure that is not equivalent to a measure. This solves problems of J. von Neumann (1937) and D. Maharam (1947). Contents 1. Introduction 2. Roberts 3. Farah 4. The construction 5. The main estimate 6. Exhaustivity 7. Proof of Theorems 1.2 to 1.4 References 1. Introduction Consider a Boolean algebra B of sets.