Xem 1-16 trên 16 kết quả Substance dependence
  • One of the key characteristics of agriculture is the inherent production risks facing producers from adverse weather, pests, and diseases. These risks have been used to justify government intervention in the form of disaster assistance payments, emergency loans, livestock feed assistance programs, crop insurance, and other subsidized assistance schemes. Yet, while government intervention to provide assistance has been widely supported in the United States, the form of assistance has been much debated.

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  • The gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) has been reported to associate with a range of substance dependence and HRH2 is the gene coding histamine H2 receptor, the site of action for various compounds, e.g. amitriptiline and mianserin, used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Both OPRM1and HRH2 genes contain some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including +118A/G in OPRM1 and +398T/C in HRH2, which were reported to change in protein sequences and result in affecting the therapeutic response. ...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

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  • This book is the outcome of many years of study. With the exception of a few quotations, none of the material has ever before appeared in any book. The writer has been indebted for years past to many of the physicians mentioned in the following pages for copies of pamphlets and magazines, and for newspaper articles, bearing upon the medical study of alcohol.

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  • Given the prevalence of mental health and substance-dependence problems in adults and children, it is not surprising that there is an enormous emotional as well as financial burden on individuals, their families and society as a whole. The economic impacts of mental illness affect personal income, the ability of ill persons – and often their caregivers – to work, productivity in the workplace and contributions to the national economy, as well as the utilization of treatment and support services.

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  • Understanding the High-Functioning Alcoholic represents the untold story of millions of alcoholics. The goal of this book is to allow society to see that alcoholics all suffer from the same disease, but that it may manifest in different ways. The homeless person and the high-powered executive can both be alcoholics— alcoholism does not differentiate among socioeconomic class, education level, and appearance. However, because the high-functioning alcoholic (HFA) has the ability to perform and succeed, the treatment often comes too late or not at all.

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  • The nonmedical use of drugs presents social problems with important pharmacological aspects. Social aspects Rewards for the individual Decriminalisation and legalisation Dependence Drugs and sport Tobacco Dependence Nicotine pharmacology Effects of chronic smoking Starting and stopping use Passive smoking Ethyl alcohol Pharmacology Car driving and alcohol Chronic consumption Withdrawal Pregnancy Pharmacological deterrence Psychodysleptics • Experiences with psychodysleptics • Individual substances, especially cannabis Stimulants • cocaine, • amfetamines.

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  • The following mechanisms are involved. Glomerular filtration. The rate at which a drug enters the glomerular filtrate depends on the concentration of free drug in plasma water and on its molecular weight. Substances that have a molecular weight in excess of 50 000 are excluded from the glomerular filtrate while those of molecular weight less than 10 000 (which includes almost all drugs)21 pass easily through the pores of the glomerular membrane. Renal tubular excretion. Cells of the proximal renal tubule actively transfer strongly charged molecules from the plasma to the tubular fluid.

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  • The second chapter case study by Rosso et al. presents a medical survey that tests professional drivers for the presence of various psychoactive substances. Positives were identified by using a commercially available immunoassay rapid kit test which indicates consumption of psychoactive drugs. This is of interest and important since the dependence on drugs may pose a risk to drivers in their profession affecting their reaction time and driving judgment. This is one of the first and important contributions to the literature in this area.

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  • Metabolism of pesticides denotes that any foreign substance that enters in the living system and how it will be changed into non-toxic and thrown out due to the enzymatic activity and other mode of action. When chemical toxins applied to nonliving substance (soil and water) that will lose the toxic principles by degradation process due to the action of biotic and abiotic factors. The time to nullify the toxicity is of prime importance and it vary depending upon the chemical molecule and environmental conditions.

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  • THE FORM AND FUNCTION of multicellular organism would not be possible without efficient communication among cells, tissues, and organs. In higher plants, regulation and coordination of metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis often depend on chemical signals from one part of the plant to another. This idea originated in the nineteenth century with the German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897). Sachs proposed that chemical messengers are responsible for the formation and growth of different plant organs.

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  • Women in prison often have more health problems than male prisoners. As indicated before, many have chronic and complex health conditions resulting from lives of poverty, drug use, family violence, sexual assault, adolescent pregnancy, malnutrition and poor health care (Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, 2006; WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007a). Drug-dependent women offenders have a higher prevalence than male offenders of tuberculosis, hepatitis, toxaemia, anaemia, hypertension, diabetes and obesity (Covington, 2007).

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  • The direct effect of probiotics in the lumen include the competition with pathogens for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and in particular organic acids competitive inhibition on the receptor sites, change in the composition of mucin hydrolysis of toxins, receptor hydrolysis, and nitric oxide (NO). The indirect effect of probiotics largely depends on the site of interaction between the probiotic and the effectors of the immune response. Thantasha et al.

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  • Population groups that are potentially more vulnerable than others to indoor air pollution are children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people suffering from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Depending on their age, children may be more vulnerable than adults to certain toxic substances, like lead and tobacco smoke. Even at low levels, air pollutants may disrupt the development of their lungs, cause cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, and make asthma worse.

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  • The goal of the CWA (also known as the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) Amendments) is to eliminate entirely discharges of pollutants from point sources (i.e., individual discharging facilities) into surface waters. Although eliminating pollutant discharges may be achievable under some circumstances through process changes that prevent pollutant formation or recycle wastes, the goal is largely rhetorical.

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  • This charge was extremely broad. It could have included literature reviews on such topics as characteristics of substance users, etiology of initiation of use, etiology of dependence, drug use prevention programs, and drug treatments. Two considerations led to narrowing the focus of our work. The first was substantive. Each of the topics just noted involves very large fields of

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