Substantial proportion

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  • Although the psychosocial oncology literature is strong, substantial limitations and unanswered questions remain. Much of the research has focused on heterogeneous samples of patients who vary widely across disease site (e.g., melanoma vs. breast cancer), stage of progression (e.g., localized vs. metastatic), and phase of illness (e.g., initial diagnosis vs. long-term survival). The challenges patients face vary widely across these dimensions, and therefore, it is crucial for research designs to take this into consideration....

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  • Business owners generally agree on the severity of several operating cost areas. “Tele- phone Costs and Services” and “Electricity Costs (Rates)” are illustrative. “Cost of Supplies/ Inventories” is also an operating cost on which there is general agreement among owners across all sub-groups. Another operating cost on which there is substantial consensus, the “Cost of Energy, Except Electricity,” which ranks 8th in agreement. Note, these costs are common to all businesses. They all pay for telephones, energy, and supplies.

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  • The three stages shown in Figure 1 are intended to demarcate three macro-stages of writing development. Writing skill is shown as continuously improving as a function of practice, as is typical for perceptual-motor and cognitive skills in general. The micro- changes underlying the gradual improvement that drive the transition to the next macro-stage fall beyond the scope of the present article.

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  • Equivalent units of production for a period can be computed in different ways. In this chapter, we discuss the weighted-average method. In Appendix 4A, we discuss the FIFO method. The FIFO method of process costing is a method in which equivalent units and unit costs relate only to work done during the current period. In contrast, the weighted- average method blends together units and costs from the current period with units and costs from the prior period. In the...

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  • The chemistry of fine organic intermediates and products shows an enormous diversity. But in reality, the number of operations/processes used remains reasonably small. These include charging/discharging of reactants and solvents, inertisation, reactions, crystallisations, phase separations, filtrations, distillation, product washing. In many cases cooling, heating, or the application of vacuum or pressure is necessary. The unavoidable waste streams are treated in recovery/abatement systems or disposed of as waste.

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  • Reproductive rights advocates have been put in a particularly challenging position because public debate about ART has been dominated by abortion politics. The Religious Right has succeeded in centralizing the discussion on the moral status of the embryo, obscuring a broader set of issues. Put in a defensive position, the reproductive rights movement has, until recently, not had the opportunity to grapple internally with the complexities of ART use, and has tended to fall back on traditional models of individual autonomy and choice. With increasing numbers of U.S.

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  • Economists have long advocated pollution taxes as a policy to improve water quality. One of the reasons water effluent taxes are embraced by economists interested in market-based policies is that sources of water pollution are varied and difficult to assess individually in terms of control costs. In principle, taxes overcome this problem. With a price—the tax—applied to pollution emissions, firms compare the price to their costs of emissions control. If the price is higher than control costs, they reduce emissions rather than pay the tax.

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  • Diseases of the Liver, Pancreas and biliary system affect a substantial proportion of the worlds population and involve doctors and health care workers across many disciplines. Many of these diseases produce great misery and distress and are economically important requiring much time off work. The aim of this series was to provide an overview of these diseases and enable the busy clinician to keep abreast of advances in diagnosis and management of not only the common but also the rarer, but none the less important, conditions....

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  • Similar MHC class II polymorphisms and T cell dysfunc- tions have been implicated in lupus,[127,128] and lower levels of free tryptophan[129] and MHC II protein over expression is also linked to autoimmune attack on beta cells in Type I diabetes (IDDM) [130]. Over expression of the MHC II following failure to select against self-reactive T-cells is also a useful model for rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, in which T- cells react to proteins produced in the body, failing to dis- criminate them from invading organisms [131].

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  • Early-Onset drinkers or ‘Survivors’ are those people who have a continuing problem with alcohol which developed in earlier life. It is thought that two thirds of elderly problem drinkers have had an early onset of alcohol misuse. However, because of the health risks connected to heavy drinking and dependence on alcohol, the chances of reaching old age are reduced - one estimate is that the life span of a problem drinker may be shortened by on average ten to fifteen years.

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  • Each generation has unique expectations, experiences, generational history, lifestyles, values, and demographics that influence their buying behaviors. Accordingly, many companies are reaching out to multi-generational consumers and trying to understand and gain the attention of these diverse buyers. Multi-generational marketing is the practice of appealing to the unique needs and behaviors of individuals within more than one specific generational group, with a generation being a group of individuals born and living about the same time [1].

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  • Using the broadest possible definition, a lipid (Greek lipos = fat ) may be defined as a compound of low or intermediate molecular weight (5000), a substantial proportion of which is made up of hydrocarbons. Included are diverse compounds such as fatty acids; soaps; detergents; steroids; mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols; and more complex compounds such as phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides.

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  • Problems of indoor air quality are recognized as important risk factors for hu- man health in both low- and middle- and high-income countries. Indoor air is also important because people spend a substantial proportion of their time in buildings. In residences, day-care centres, retirement homes and other special environments, indoor air pollution affects population groups that are particu- larly vulnerable owing to their health status or age.

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  • A gender audit is essentially a “social audit”, and belongs to the category of “quality audits”, which distinguishes it from traditional “fi nancial audits”. It considers whether internal practices and related support systems for gender mainstreaming are effective and reinforce each other and whether they are being followed. It establishes a baseline; identifi es critical gaps and challenges; and recommends ways of addressing them, suggesting possible improvements and innovations. It also documents good practices towards the achievement of gender equality.

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  • Experts agree that attempts to prevent childhood obesity and its health consequences, such as type 2 diabetes, must shift the focus from treating overweight children to addressing health disparities among children of varying socio-economic status. and mitigating the social and environmental factors that contribute to the declining health of children overall. The nation’s health care costs for treating diabetes are $92 billion.

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  • The aim of the descriptive approach is to place a large number of films into a small set of groups based on common characteristics such as theme or visual style. This means concentrating on the formal and stylistic qualities of films. Try the following introductory exercise to familiarise yourself with this approach: The functional approach to genre, focuses instead on the role genre plays in society itself. The Functional approach examines film and the viewing of films as a shared, social ritual, with different audiences sharing common expectations and experiences.

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  • As an artist, educator and gallery director, I’ve spent many hours looking at and thinking about art and art making. Often I’m looking for inspiration for my own work or for a curatorial idea I have brewing. Many times I’ve sent stu- dents to look someone up, so they can better understand the artist’s ideas and techniques in order to better inform their own work. This book is a great tool for exactly that process. From beginning to end it contains details about the making process.

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  • Many indicators regarding the health of the world’s environment remain firmly in the red. Trends such as climate change, water scarcity, air pollution, biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation all continue to threaten our finite stock of natural capital and the ability of our economy to provide sustainable growth and prosperity for all. A great deal of this environmental damage is caused by the way we do business. If we are to create a truly sustainable global economy, then we must change our economic models so that business can become part of the solution, not part of the problem. ...

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  • The main differences between a hedge fund and a private equity fund are: (a) the private equity fund looks to use leverage to buy companies to obtain full management control for purposes of changing its structure operations, whereas a hedge fund trades assets without looking for full control; (b) the hedge fund covers a multitude of styles, only one small part of which might involve buying shares to force management to make value enhancing changes (activist); and (c) hedge funds often (but not always) have a shorter investment horizon than private equity firms.

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  • To construct the linked employer-employee data set, we first select establish- ments from the establishment panel data. From the available waves, we use the years 1995 to 2005. Since information on a number of variables, such as investment expenditures and sales are gathered retrospectively for the preceding year, we lose information on the last wave. Moreover, we restrict our sample to western Ger- man establishments from the mining and manufacturing sector with at least two employees.

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