In this paper we argue that religion and welfare state spending are substitute mecha-
nisms that insure individuals against adverse life events. As a result, individuals who
are religious will prefer lower levels of social insurance provision than will individuals
who are secular, and countries that are more religious on average will have lower levels
of welfare state spending.
More precisely, the question to be addressed is whether there are substitutes available
at less cost than the true cost of Chemical A. Substitutes that meet this requirement will not
always be available. For instance, "retro-fitting" existing production facilities in order to
employ substitutes is, as a rule, likely to be quite expensive. The availability of financially
viable alternative actions may be higher at the design stage of a process or product's
Score gains in the Writing component of the Test have been the main focus of much of this research.
Green (2004) presents the findings of four studies, all of which involved candidates whose average
initial score was 5.0 and who were undertaking periods of English language instruction of not more
than three months. Average score gains in these four studies were less than half a band. In these
studies, the candidates who achieved a score of 5.0 or below on the first test tended to improve on the
second, while those achieving a score of 7.0 tended to receive a...
While 2K projection had a long head start, theater owners currently
purchasing digital projectors in the US are overwhelmingly embracing
Sony Digital Cinema™
As of August 2011, over 9,000 screens worldwide had converted to
Sony 4K projectors. This includes more than 7,000 screens in the United States
alone. About half of these Sony systems are also 3D capable. In fact, in the
US, Sony 4K accounts for nearly as many 3D-capable projectors installed as
all other brands combined.
This large and rapidly growing installed base of 4K projectors has prompted
the studios to...
To fully capture the salient qualities of deeply engaging experiences, a
broader palette of emotions is necessary. One kind of emotion is the feel-
ing of understanding in an experience of learning. The term “feeling of
understanding” highlights the vital quality of learning that is implicit,
non-logical, and non-verbal. Examples include the feeling that an indi-
vidual may have for the meaning of a difficult text passage, the symbolic
significance of something in a work of art, the connection between an
abstract idea and a concrete part of one’s world,...
Globally, clinker is typically produced in rotary kilns. Rotary kilns can be either wet
process or dry process kilns. Wet process rotary kilns are more energy-intensive and have
been rapidly phased out over the past few decades in almost all industrialized countries
except the US and the former Soviet Union.
This paper doesn’t outline how to measure and report social sustainability. This task has
already been undertaken by the author and presented elsewhere (see Kimmet and Wikstrom
2005). The much less ambitious objective of shoring up the case for such measurement
frameworks is all that’s attempted here. Arguably though, this is at least as important as how
to do it, given that many real estate investors will want to evaluate potential investments in
their own way once it is clearly understood what social sustainability is, and why it should be
If a warranty is offered, make sure you save the sales slip as well as information on the
warranty. You should also record the date of store purchase. Keep all this information in case
you need it later. If the manufacturer does not offer a warranty, find out if the store will assure
responsibility for defects, poor workmanship, or damage during delivery. Always get
warranties in writing; oral warranties are worthless.
Also check to see if there is a warranty on the fabric or fibers.
Condominium ownership is ownership of a unit,
usually in a highrise. Condominiums can also be
townhouses or lowrises.
Condominium ownership means you own the unit
you live in and share ownership rights for the
common space of the building. Common space
includes areas such as corridors, the grounds around
the building, and facilities such as a swimming pool
and recreation rooms.
Condominium owners together control the common
areas through an owners’ association. The association
makes decisions about using and maintaining the
Data were extracted into separate databases for studies reporting on crops and livestock
products (including meat, milk and eggs). Extracted data included all relevant information
on study characteristics, methods and results. Data on factors outlined in the conceptual
framework on nutrient variability (Figure 1) were also extracted when available. For the
first 10 included articles, data extraction was performed in duplicate by two independent
reviewers. Extracted data were compared and any inconsistencies noted and corrected as
From the early days of the Internet, when only e-mail servers were on the network, a hacker’s ultimate goal was to gain root
access to the UNIX host that ran these applications. With root access, the hacker had full control of the system and could
often collect enough information to gain access to the rest of the network and other partner networks. E-business application
hosts have increased the number of targets for hackers.
Bonds are securities that establish a creditor relationship between the purchaser (creditor) and the
issuer (debtor). The issuer receives a certain amount of money in return for the bond, and is
obligated to repay the principal at the end of the lifetime of the bond (maturity). Typically, bonds
also require coupon or interest payments. Since all these payments are determined as part of the
contracts, bonds are also called fixed income securities.
A straight bond is one where the purchaser pays a fixed amount of money to buy the bond.
In the United States, insurance regulators require bonds and preferred stocks to be reported
in statutory financial statements in one of six National Association of Insurance
Commissioners (NAIC) designations categories that denote credit quality. If an accepted
rating organisation (ARO) has rated the security, the security is not required to be filed with
the NAIC’s Securities Valuation Office (SVO). Rather, the ARO rating is used to map the
security to one of the six NAIC designation categories.
The compensation or return theoretically due to or actually gained by a country’s citizens when a
country’s resources such as oil or forests are exploited for export has always depended on
complex social institutions, property rights and power relations. In an era of increasing trade,
investment and financial liberalisation, the relationship between the exploitation of resources and
the accrual of benefits to poor citizens is even more difficult.
Given these diverse viewpoints, understandably, the assessment of individual events
was also different among investment banks. One bank considered the struggle about
the early warning to Germany and Portugal in February, and the Council’s decision
not to issue such a warning was considered a lost opportunity to enforce the Stability
and Growth Pact as the existing procedure of fiscal co-ordination among European
Conversely another bank argued “no warning, no problem,” since the two
countries confirmed their commitment to their fiscal target.
The next section discusses contractual use of accounting earnings and implications for the inclusion of cash flow forecasts in earnings and the relative abilities of earnings and cash flows to forecast future earnings. Section 3 models operating cash flows and the accounting process by which operating cash flow forecasts are incorporated in earnings.
Although the market for small public company audits has become much
less concentrated since 2002, the continuing concentration in the market
for larger public companies limits these companies’ auditor choices but
does not appear to have significantly affected audit fees. According to our
analysis, the largest accounting firms audit 98 percent of the more than
1,500 largest public companies—those with annual revenues of more than
This approach has strengths and weaknesses. Its great strength is that it is supremely logical:
think before you build, write it all down, follow a plan, and keep everything as organized as
possible. It has just one great weakness: humans are involved.
For example: this approach requires that the good ideas all come at the beginning of the
development cycle, where they can be incorporated into the plan.
The MyLifeBits shell is the main user interface. It allows queries to be viewed as a list, variable sized
thumbnails, and a timeline. It enables refinement or pivoting according to metadata and links as described
in the following section. It provides for the creation of text and voice comments. For example, any number
of selected items may be commented on using the annotation function with a simple button or right click
operation (comments may be text, voice, or any file). Similarly, these items can be assigned to collections.
Having thus introduced the papers collectively, let me also say something about
them individually, thereby giving some sense for which kinds of economists might find
which papers especially interesting. Akerlof and Kranton’s paper has clear links to both
labor economics and organizational economics, and also more broadly to behavioral