Substitution effects

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: "Carbon pool and substitution effects of an increased use of wood in buildings in Switzerland: first estimates"

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  • Processing discourse connectives is important for tasks such as discourse parsing and generation. For these tasks, it is useful to know which connectives can signal the same coherence relations. This paper presents experiments into modelling the substitutability of discourse connectives. It shows that substitutability effects distributional similarity. A novel variancebased function for comparing probability distributions is found to assist in predicting substitutability.

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  • Lecture Organic chemistry - Chapter 7: Unimolecular substitution and elimination. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Some observations, a new mechanism, what is the intermediate? The mechanism explains the data, the strong effect of polar solvents on the SN1 reaction,...and other contents.

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  • A series of seven azomethines has been synthesized from p-nitrobenzaldehyde and different substituted anilines. The structures of products have been determined by the data of IR-spectra. All obtained azomethines have metallic inhibition corrosion capacities on CT-3 steel and aluminum in different levels: the protection effects were 41-57% on CT-3 steel and 83-92% on aluminum. The influences of structures to their metallic inhibition corrosion capacities have been discussed.

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  • This information is not presented by a medical practitioner and is for educational and informational purposes only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read.

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  • Economics is often defined as something along the lines of “the study of how society manages its scarce resources.” The starting point of most such studies is that individuals allocate their resources such that they themselves will get the highest possible level of utility. An individual has an idea of what the consequences of different actions will be, and she chooses that action she believes will produce the best result for her.

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  • Các cá nhân có một lượng thời gian cố định được sử dụng cho các làm việc và nghỉ ngơi. Nếu một giờ bổ sung được sử dụng cho công việc, khi đó các hình thức sử dụng thay thế khác sẽ ít đi một giờ. Chi phí cơ hội của một giờ nghỉ ngơi là tiền lương từ bỏ để sử dụng cho nghỉ ngơi. Vì vậy, một sự tăng lương làm tăng chi phí cơ hội của thời gian nghỉ ngơi và dẫn tới hiệu ứng thay thế (substitution effect) làm giảm thời gian nghỉ ngơi và tăng...

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  • Glassware must be scrupulously cleaned. Clean all glassware as soon as possible 3 after use by rinsing with the last solvent used in it. Solvent rinsing should be followed by detergent washing with hot water, and rinses with tap water and distilled water. The glassware should then be drained dry, and heated in a muffle furnace at 400°C for 15-30 minutes. Some thermally stable materials may not be eliminated by this treatment. Solvent rinses with acetone and pesticide quality hexane may be substituted for the muffle furnace heating.

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  • The effect of HNC on air quality is measured using hourly air pollution records from monitoring stations. Pollution levels are compared before and after the restrictions for five major pollutants with levels in previous years acting as a comparison group to control for seasonal variation. The analysis controls for possible confounding factors by restricting the sample to a relatively narrow time window around the implementation of HNC and by using a regression discontinuity design. Across pollutants and specifications there is no evidence that the program has improved air quality.

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  • Since each retailer has a monopoly power through the captive consumers, the strategies employed in the oligopolistic equilibrium depend on the pricing behavior of a hyphotetical monopolist facing the captive consumers. Before proceeding to solving the oligopoly model we will illustrate the optimal behavior of the consumers facing any price pair and, subsequently, pro t-maximizing strategy of the monopolist.

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  • Chapter 13 The Effect of Taxation Taxes affect household behavior via income and substitution effects. The income effect is straightforward: as taxes go up, households are poorer and behave that way. For example, if leisure is a normal good

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  • Good availability of bank credit and informal capital can partially but not fully substitute for underdeveloped equity markets. New Zealand’s banking sector has been growing since 1990 in line with growth in Australia and Denmark. Informal capital markets are also larger than in most OECD countries relative to GDP. International Linkages While New Zealand’s economy has low formal barriers to trade, its share of external trade (relative to GDP) is well below that of similar-sized, high-performing OECD countries.

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  • An increase in the price of a supply-substitute reduces the supply of a good (by making the alternative good more attractive to suppliers), and similarly, a decrease in the price of a supply complement reduces the supply of a good. By making the by-product less valuable, the returns to investing in a good are reduced. Thus, an increase in the price of DVD-R discs (used for recording DVDs) discourages investment in the manufacture of CD-Rs, which are a substitute in supply, leading to a decrease in the supply of CD-Rs. This tends to increase the price of...

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  • A key component of the quality of pharmaceutical drugs is the control of impurities. It is important to identify and quantify levels of impurities that may be present to provide safe, effective and well-controlled medicines. The measurement and identification of impurities to today’s standards presents significant challenges to the analytical chemist.

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  • The magnitude of this relationship has important policy implications. If there is a positive effect of mother’s education as knowledge on children’s health, certain type of policies concerning the diffusion of specific information at community levels can be called for. For example, one important channel through which mother’s education as knowledge can affect child’s health at a community level is through the usage of health facilities which can serve as a complement or even as a substitute for the mother’s education.

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  • Pressures on European banks to deleverage increased towards the end of 2011 as funding strains intensified and regulators imposed new capitalisation targets. Many of these banks shed assets, both through sales and by cutting lending. However, this did not appear to weigh heavily on asset prices, nor did overall financing fall for most types of credit. This was because other banks, asset managers and bond market investors took over the business of European banks.

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  • Given these diverse viewpoints, understandably, the assessment of individual events was also different among investment banks. One bank considered the struggle about the early warning to Germany and Portugal in February, and the Council’s decision not to issue such a warning was considered a lost opportunity to enforce the Stability and Growth Pact as the existing procedure of fiscal co-ordination among European countries. 7 Conversely another bank argued “no warning, no problem,” since the two countries confirmed their commitment to their fiscal target.

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  • It is not impossible that in the minds of some persons the idea of employing gentle measures in the management and training of children may seem to imply the abandonment of the principle of authority, as the basis of the parental government, and the substitution of some weak and inefficient system of artifice and manoeuvring in its place. To suppose that the object of this work is to aid in effecting such a substitution as that, is entirely to mistake its nature and design.

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  • From a theoretic economic perspective, the effect of taxes on private saving is ambiguous. If taxes are reduced, the after-tax return on saving is larger; consequently, individuals may be able to maintain a target level of wealth and save less (wealth will grow due to the higher after-tax returns). This is the income effect and has lower taxes leading to less saving. However, the reduced after-tax return changes the relative price of consuming now (saving less) and future consumption (saving more) in favor of future consumption.

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  • A series of cobalt doped nickel ferrite with composition of Ni1-XCoXFe2O4 with x ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 (in steps of 0.2) was prepared by using co-precipitation method and subsequently sintered, annealed at 6000C for 3h. The influence of the Co content on the crystal lattice parameter, the stretching vibration and the magnetization of specimens were subsequently studied. XRD and FTIR were used to investigate structure and composition variations of the samples. All samples were found to have a cubic spinel structure. ...

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