Supercooling of water

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  • The metastable state of liquids which are supercooled has been the subject of interest for over 300 years. Supercooled water and aqueous solutions are found in the atmosphere, in cold-hardy organisms, and in many industrial applications. For example, freeze tolerance and the associated avoidance of supercooling, is the dominant cold-related strategy in Southern Hemisphere insects, being found in 77% of cold hardy insects. In industry, thermodynamic systems such as cool boxes have a significant financial driving force for supercooling to be controlled and this is also covered in this book...

    pdf142p contentnew 12-04-2012 49 14   Download

  • The metastable state of liquids which are supercooled has been the subject of interest for over 300 years. Supercooled water and aqueous solutions are found in the atmosphere, in cold-hardy organisms, and in many industrial applications. For example, freeze tolerance and the associated avoidance of supercooling, is the dominant cold-related strategy in Southern Hemisphere insects, being found in 77% of cold hardy insects. In industry, thermodynamic systems such as cool boxes have a significant financial driving force for supercooling to be controlled and this is also covered in this book....

    pdf0p qsczaxewd 25-09-2012 31 3   Download

  • Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for lifegiving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy.

    pdf20p taisaocothedung 12-01-2013 27 1   Download

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