The Government plays an important role in ensuring that insurance services can generate
benefits. In developed countries, the Government’s key role is to act as a regulator to
ensure security and stability in the sector. In developing countries, it also has the role of
providing insurance services as a public good.
Developing countries seek to establish efficient domestic regulatory frameworks as a
prerequisite for insurance service privatization and liberalization.
The Affordable Care Act provides States with significant flexibility in the design and operation of their
Exchange to best meet the unique needs of their citizens and their marketplace. States can choose to
operate as a State-based Exchange, or the Secretary of the Department of Health & Human Services
(HHS) will establish and operate a Federally-facilitated Exchange in any State that does not elect to
operate a State-based Exchange.
While much of this recent literature has focused on how the amount of insurance
varies across diﬀerent worker and employer groups, the role of collective bargaining
has received somewhat less attention.
The scant evidence on collective bargaining
is particularly surprising as the role of trade unions as an insurance device has
long been emphasised by researchers. The general argument here is that union
may mitigate the enforcement problems that arise within risk-sharing agreements
between workers and their employers (e.g., Horn and Svensson 1986, Malcolmson
The data we use to address these questions are taken from a large-scale matched
worker-ﬁrm data set for Germany, the IAB Linked Employer-Employee data set
(LIAB). This data set links the IAB-Establishment Panel with individual data for
the entire population of workers from the Employment Statistics Register. Due to
its administrative nature, one of the major advantages of this data set is that it
oﬀers very reliable information on individual daily wages inclusive of supplemental
pay as long as such pay is subject to social security contributions.
Congress established a standing disaster program in the 2008 farm bill—
the Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program. Under this
program, Congress funded a $3.8 billion permanent trust fund and
directed the Secretary of Agriculture to make crop disaster assistance
payments to eligible farmers who suffer crop losses on or before
September 30, 2011. USDA—through FSA—began making disaster
payments under this program in early 2010 for crop losses incurred in
Whether you should buy a long-term care insurance policy will depend on
your age, health status, overall retirement goals, income and assets. For
instance, if your only source of income is a Social Security benefit or
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), you probably shouldn’t buy long-term
care insurance, as you may not be able to afford the premium.
On the other hand, if you have a large amount of assets but don’t want to
use them to pay for long-term care, you may want to buy a long-term care
In addition to the traditional FFS Medicare or Medicare
Managed Care (MMC) insurance, many elderly buy supplemental
insurance policies to cover prescription drugs
or catastrophic expenses. These supplemental policies are
known as MediGap plans, because they help fill gaps in
the available health insurance coverage. Some Medicare
beneficiaries are dual eligibles – covered by both Medicare
(health insurance for the aged) and Medicaid (health
insurance for the poor with chronic disabilities or endstage
In some contracts with deductibles, the insurer pays the full claim then seeks reimbursement
from the insured for the deductible portion of the contract. In some jurisdictions, such
arrangements are also known as “large deductibles”. The resulting policy premium for such
large deductible policies is expected to be smaller than if no deductible existed. Different
accounting systems may choose to treat the premium reduction due to the deductible credit
If you notice additional damage to your Building
Property or Personal Property after filing your
claim, you may file a Supplemental Claim.This means,
essentially , that you must repeat the documentation and
filing process for your original claim, including a Proof
of Loss—but only for the newly discovered damage.
Supplemental Claims should start with immediately
notifying your adjuster , agent and/or company
representative. Once you have completed
documentation, present it to your adjuster who may
need to make another property visit to verify your loss....
Crop insurance and other government programs for farmers are also linked via disaster programs.
The Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE) requires the purchase of crop
insurance for program eligibility.
For participation in commodity programs listed above, there is
no crop insurance requirement.
Many analysts also contend that credit scores, which weigh items that signify
financial distress or limited availability of credit, are correlated with minority status.
Significant debate has continued about lending practices that restrict access to credit in
minority communities—a factor that could have a significant impact on insurance-based
The CSS PROFILE is used primarily by expensive private schools to determine your true
ability to pay. In addition to using the FAFSA to determine an initial EFC, private schools use
the PROFILE to look for supplemental sources of funding. For instance, colleges requiring the
PROFILE will ask about home equity and treat it as a legitimate source for funding college,
whereas colleges requiring only the FAFSA do not.
The need for a money market arises because receipts of economic units do not coincide with their
expenditures. These units can hold money balances—that is, transactions balances in the form of currency,
demand deposits, or NOW accounts—to insure that planned expenditures can be maintained independently
of cash receipts. Holding these balances, however, involves a cost in the form of foregone interest. To
minimize this cost, economic units usually seek to hold the minimum money balances required for day-to-
It is estimated that 30-35 million people are engaged in livestock
related activities and generate 30-40% of their income from livestock
enterprises. This supplemental income is very significant in view of the
tendency of the declining size of ownership holdings in agriculture and the
growing number of the landless in the rural economy. Livestock
enterprises are particularly important for the landless and small farmers
because livestock provides an alternative form of asset ownership,
independent of land.
Dr. Eisenberg further states, "The magnitude of the demand for alternative therapy is noteworthy, in light
of the relatively low rates of insurance coverage for these services.” The study goes on to suggest that
“federal agencies, private corporations, foundations and academic institutions adopt a more pro-active
posture concerning the implementation of clinical and basic science research, the development of relevant