studies in surface science and catalysis
METHODS FOR MONITORING AND DIAGNOSING THE EFFICIENCY OF CATALYTIC CONVERTERS
A Patent - oriented Survey
.This is Volume 14 of the EPO Applied Technology Series.
Tools shape how we think; when the only tool you have is an axe, everything resembles a
tree or a log. The rapid advances in instrumentation in the last decade, which allow us to
measure and manipulate individual molecules and structures on the nanoscale, have caused
a paradigm shift in the way we view molecular behavior and surfaces. The microscopic details
underlying interfacial phenomena have customarily been inferred from in situ measurements
of macroscopic quantities. Now we can see and “finger” physical and chemical
processes at interfaces.
At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity
he characterization of individual molecules has been a scientifically attractive and challenging task for decades, and remains so today. New technological developments have facilitated great progress in our understanding of the structure and behavior of single atoms and molecules in various environments.
Knowledge of the Earth’s structure and dynamics calls for a multi-disciplinary study that
makes use of the most advanced methods of Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics
and Information Technology, in the framework, or in close collaboration with, the
different branches of Earth Sciences such as Geology, Geophysics and Geodesy.
Nine years has passed since the 1992 second edition of the encyclopedia was published. This completely revised third edition, which is a university and professional level compendium of chemistry, molecular biology, mathematics, and engineering, is refreshed with numerous articles about current research in these fields. For example, the new edition has an increased emphasis on information processing and biotechnology, reflecting the rapid growth of these areas.
Annals of Mathematics
This paper is the third in a series where we describe the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed 3-manifold. In [CM3]–[CM5] we describe the case where the surfaces are topologically disks on any ﬁxed small scale. Although the focus of this paper, general planar domains, is more in line with [CM6], we will prove a result here (namely, Corollary III.
We study “ﬂat knot types” of geodesics on compact surfaces M 2 . For every ﬂat knot type and any Riemannian metric g we introduce a Conley index associated with the curve shortening ﬂow on the space of immersed curves on M 2 . We conclude existence of closed geodesics with prescribed ﬂat knot types, provided the associated Conley index is nontrivial. 1. Introduction If M is a surface with a Riemannian metric g then closed geodesics on (M, g) are critical points of the length functional L(γ) = |γ (x)|dx deﬁned on the space of unparametrized C...
In this paper we will prove the Calabi-Yau conjectures for embedded surfaces (i.e., surfaces without self-intersection). In fact, we will prove considerably more. The heart of our argument is very general and should apply to a variety of situations, as will be more apparent once we describe the main steps of the proof later in the introduction.
This paper is the ﬁrst in a series where we describe the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed Riemannian 3-manifold. The key for understanding such surfaces is to understand the local structure in a ball and in particular the structure of an embedded minimal disk in a ball in R3 (with the ﬂat metric). This study is undertaken here and completed in [CM6]. These local results are then applied in [CM7] where we describe the general structure of ﬁxed genus surfaces in 3-manifolds. There are two local models for...
This paper is the fourth in a series where we describe the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed 3manifold. The key is to understand the structure of an embedded minimal disk in a ball in R3 . This was undertaken in [CM3], [CM4] and the global version of it will be completed here; see the discussion around Figure 12 for the local case and [CM15] for some more details. Our main results are Theorem 0.1 (the lamination theorem) and Theorem 0.2 (the one-sided curvature estimate). ...
Catalysis and Electrocatalysis at Nanoparticle Surfaces reflects many of the new
developments of catalysis, surface science, and electrochemistry. The first three
chapters indicate the sophistication of the theory in simulating catalytic processes
that occur at the solid–liquid and solid–gas interface in the presence of external
potential. The first chapter, by Koper and colleagues, discusses the theory of
modeling of catalytic and electrocatalytic reactions.
The new millennium has seen the birth of a new perspective that conflates research in solid-state physics, biological science as well
as materials engineering. The perspective is one that recognizes that
future new advances in all these areas will be based on a fundamental
understanding of the atomic and molecular infrastructure of
materials that has resulted from two centuries of chemistry. Major
advances will be achieved when the novel behavior, in particular the
quantum mechanical behavior, that nanoscale structures possess, can
be controlled and harnessed....
In this research, remote sensing technology was used to evaluate urban development and its thermal characteristics through mapping impervious surfaces and evaluating thermal infrared images. The study is carried out in the northern part of Ho Chi Minh City, which is experienced an accelerated urban development since the end of 1980s. Landsat and Aster images were used to calculate the variation in urban impervious surfaces from 1989 to 2006. Thermal bands were processed to obtain land surface temperatures for investigating the urban heat island effect...
We give inﬁnite series of groups Γ and of compact complex surfaces of general type S with fundamental group Γ such that 1) Any surface S with the same Euler number as S, and fundamental group Γ, is diﬀeomorphic to S. 2) The moduli space of S consists of exactly two connected components, exchanged by complex conjugation. Whence, i) On the one hand we give simple counterexamples to the DEF = DIFF question whether deformation type and diﬀeomorphism type coincide for algebraic surfaces. ii) On the other hand we get examples of moduli spaces without real points. iii)...
The space of embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a 3-manifold II; Multi-valued graphs in disks
By Tobias H. Colding and William P. Minicozzi II*
0. Introduction This paper is the second in a series where we give a description of the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed 3-manifold. The key for understanding such surfaces is to understand the local structure in a ball and in particular the structure of an embedded minimal disk in a ball in R3 . We show here that if the curvature of such a disk...
We investigate point singularities of Willmore surfaces, which for example appear as blowups of the Willmore ﬂow near singularities, and prove that closed Willmore surfaces with one unit density point singularity are smooth in codimension one. As applications we get in codimension one that the Willmore ﬂow of spheres with energy less than 8π exists for all time and converges to a round sphere and further that the set of Willmore tori with energy less than 8π − δ is compact up to M¨bius transformations. o 1. Introduction For an immersed closed surface f : ...
We study the integral points on surfaces by means of a new method, relying on the Schmidt Subspace Theorem. This method was recently introduced in [CZ] for the case of curves, leading to a new proof of Siegel’s celebrated theorem that any aﬃne algebraic curve deﬁned over a number ﬁeld has only ﬁnitely many S-integral points, unless it has genus zero and not more than two points at inﬁnity. Here, under certain conditions involving the intersection matrix of the divisors at inﬁnity, we shall conclude that the integral points on a surface all lie on a curve. We shall...