This book provides a current overview of the theoretical and experimental aspects of some interferometry techniques applied to Topography and Astronomy. The first two chapters comprise interferometry techniques used for precise measurement of surface topography in engineering applications; while chapters three through eight are dedicated to interferometry applications related to Earth's topography. The last chapter is an application of interferometry in Astronomy, directed specifically to detection of planets outside our solar system.
Different aspects of metal forming, consisting of process, tools and design, are presented in this book. The chapters of this book include the state of art and analysis of the processes considering the materials characteristics. The processes of hydroforming, forging and forming of sandwich sheet are discussed. Also, a chapter on topography of tools, and another chapter on machine tools are presented. Design of a programmable metal forming press and methods for predicting forming limits of sheet metal are described....
Two chemical treatments were applied to jute fibers to create a better bonding of fiber to resin in natural composite materials. The jute fibers have been treated with hydroxide potassium (KOH) and a bleaching agent, canxi hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2.4H2O), in varying periods. Characterization techniques such as FT-IR, SEM were used to evaluate the effect of chemical treatments on fiber structure. After treatment the surface topography of jute was clean and microfibrils were revealed, these lead to an enhancement in mechanical properties and interfacial strength between jute fiber and PP.
Fractography is the term coined by Carl A. Zapffe in 1944 following his discovery of a means for overcoming the difficulty of bringing the lens of a microscope sufficiently near the jagged surface of a fracture to disclose its details within individual grains (Ref 1). The purpose of fractography is to analyze the fracture features and to attempt to relate
the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture