Survival and pathogenesis

Xem 1-10 trên 10 kết quả Survival and pathogenesis
  • Many mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis, grow extremely slowly in the laboratory and require 3–8 weeks of incubation on solid medium or at least 2 weeks in a radiometric liquid culture system (BACTEC). This slow growth often leads to delay in TB diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) methods allow for detection of mycobacterial DNA or RNA directly from the specimens before the culture results are available. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two NAA tests for direct detection of M. tuberculosis from clinical specimens.

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  • Only 32% infants are exclusively breastfed during the first six months. This is an increase from 13% in 2003. Data from the 2003 and 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, show that although breastfeeding is a common practice in Kenya, mixed feeding rather than exclusive breastfeeding is practiced. There was a marked decline in exclusive breastfeeding rates between 1993/98 (17%) and 2003 (13%). Some of the contributing factors were confusing messages about breastfeeding in context HIV and AIDS.

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  • But the Commission's hope for the future is conditional on decisive political action now to begin managing environmental resources to ensure both sustainable human progress and human survival. We are not forecasting a future; we are serving a notice - an urgent notice based on the latest and best scientific evidence - that the time has come to take the decisions needed to secure the resources to sustain this and coming generations. We do not offer a detailed blueprint for action, but instead a pathway by which the peoples of the world may enlarge their spheres of cooperation....

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  • The third reason stems from a different set of empirical findings. Barring sub-Saharan Africa over the past thirty years or so, gross income per head has grown in nearly all poor regions since the end of the Second World War. In addition, growth in world food production since 1960 has exceeded the world’s population growth: by an annual rate of 0.6 percent, approximately.This has been accompanied by improvements in a number of indicators of human welfare, such as the infant survival rate, life expectancy at birth, and literacy.

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  • Decreases in pH and ANC are often paral- leled by changes in element concentrations including increases in Al +3 concentrations and decreases in Ca +2 . High dissolved Al +3 concen- trations can have toxic effects on many types of aquatic biota, and at extreme levels few aquatic species can survive (Table 1). Organic forms of Al +3 are much less toxic than inorganic forms. Emerging research suggests that Ca +2 concentra- tions in streamwater are also an important bio- logical indicator.

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  • It is clear from above that the coverage levels of key interventions remain sub-optimal12 and require increased efforts to secure improved survival chances for children in their early stages of life. This will also contribute to improving maternal health and reduce maternal mortality. The level of contraceptive use has been low and terminal methods of sterilisation, which are not very effective in spacing between the deliveries, had the major share among the different methods used.

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  • An Entrepreneurship and Small Business BBS from Massey will provide a thorough understanding of this innovative business sector and equip you with the skills to be a part of it. Small business operators and entrepreneurs play key roles in our society. To survive they must constantly ask questions like, “Do I extend my operations?”, “Do I sell out?”, “How do I build on past success?”, “How do I balance home life with my work?”, and “How do I raise money to finance expansion?”.

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  • The intuition underpinning these results is as follows. In a highly connected system, the counterparty losses of a failing institution can be more widely dispersed to, and absorbed by, other entities. So increased connectivity and risk sharing may lower the probability of contagious default. But, conditional on the failure of one institution triggering contagious defaults, a high number of nancial linkages also increases the potential for contagion to spread more widely.

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  • Appropriate feeding practices are of fundamental importance for the survival, growth, development, health and nutrition of infants and children. The 1990’s saw an upsurge of several worldwide efforts to achieve this goal. Examples of this are the Innocenti Declaration on Breastfeeding (1990), the World Summit for Children (1990), The Earth Summit (1992) the International Conference on Nutrition (1992) and the International Conference on Population and Development (1994). All agreed on the need to create the right environment for women to breastfeed their children....

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  • Very limited evidence was available to inform the following recommendations on screening. No prospective studies have evaluated the impact of screening on survival, quality of life, or morbidity from treatment for skin cancer nor are there data on the adverse effects of screening for skin cancer. As experts in the treatment and epidemiology of skin cancer, the guideline panel members were aware that some individuals are at increased risk for skin cancer because of personal characteristics or history.

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