Whilst herbivory is widespread in the animal kingdom, no vertebrates and few invertebrates are capable of synthesizing cellulose- or hemicellulose-digesting enzymes. Instead, herbivores have evolved symbiotic associations with microorganisms....
The present work is a review of all the organisms thus far reported
from Lebanese amber. Various paleoentomologists have contributed
to the study of Lebanese amber insects. Studies by Paul Whalley, once
at the British Museum, have been especially useful. However, works
like ours are also made possible by those who go into the field and
search for amber sites. Scientists are indebted to these individuals since,
without their zeal, there would not be many scientific descriptions of
amber fossils or books like the present one....
Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distri-buted over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically
breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be
irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and⁄or prolonged envi-ronmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host.
Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses in terms
of their obligate and symbiotic associations with some
parasitic wasps. TheCotesia kariyaipolydnavirus (CkPDV)
replicates only in ovarian calyxcells of C. kariyaifemale
wasps and is injected into the wasp’s host, the armyworm
Pseudaletia separata,along with the eggs. A previous study
indicated the possibility that one of the CkPDV surface
proteins mediates immunoevasion by the wasp from the
encapsulation reaction of the host insect’s hemocytes....
In general biological terms, the type of association between two
different organisms can be classified as parasitic, where one benefits at
the expense of the other, or symbiotic (mutualistic), where both benefit.
There is an intermediate category called commensalism, where only
one organism derives benefit, living near the other organism or on its
surface without doing any damage.
Insects are associated with a broad diversity of
microorganisms in a variety of symbiotic relationships
including: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism.
Internal mutualistic organisms are critical to the survival
of the host, such as symbionts, which are found in
mycetocytes and mycetomes of many invertebrate
species. Although mutualistic organisms such as the
protists associated with termites may be abundant in their
insect hosts, they are not by deﬁnition pathogenic to the