Symbiotic associations

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  • Whilst herbivory is widespread in the animal kingdom, no vertebrates and few invertebrates are capable of synthesizing cellulose- or hemicellulose-digesting enzymes. Instead, herbivores have evolved symbiotic associations with microorganisms....

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  • The present work is a review of all the organisms thus far reported from Lebanese amber. Various paleoentomologists have contributed to the study of Lebanese amber insects. Studies by Paul Whalley, once at the British Museum, have been especially useful. However, works like ours are also made possible by those who go into the field and search for amber sites. Scientists are indebted to these individuals since, without their zeal, there would not be many scientific descriptions of amber fossils or books like the present one....

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  • Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distri-buted over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and⁄or prolonged envi-ronmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host.

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  • Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses in terms of their obligate and symbiotic associations with some parasitic wasps. TheCotesia kariyaipolydnavirus (CkPDV) replicates only in ovarian calyxcells of C. kariyaifemale wasps and is injected into the wasp’s host, the armyworm Pseudaletia separata,along with the eggs. A previous study indicated the possibility that one of the CkPDV surface proteins mediates immunoevasion by the wasp from the encapsulation reaction of the host insect’s hemocytes....

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  • In general biological terms, the type of association between two different organisms can be classified as parasitic, where one benefits at the expense of the other, or symbiotic (mutualistic), where both benefit. There is an intermediate category called commensalism, where only one organism derives benefit, living near the other organism or on its surface without doing any damage.

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  • Insects are associated with a broad diversity of microorganisms in a variety of symbiotic relationships including: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Internal mutualistic organisms are critical to the survival of the host, such as symbionts, which are found in mycetocytes and mycetomes of many invertebrate species. Although mutualistic organisms such as the protists associated with termites may be abundant in their insect hosts, they are not by definition pathogenic to the host insect.

    pdf513p quynho77 12-11-2012 29 5   Download

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