Science progresses by a symbiotic interaction between theory and experiment: theory is
used to interpret experimental results and may suggest new experiments; experiment
helps to test theoretical predictions and may lead to improved theories. Theoretical
Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics) provides the concep-
tual and technical background and apparatus for the rationalisation of phenomena in the
chemical sciences. It is, therefore, a wide ranging subject, reflecting the diversity of
molecular and related species and processes arising in chemical systems.
Poverty is a severe problem in Africa, Asia, South America and even in pockets of the
developed world. Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological
nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on
This balanced relationship is the basis of the underlying hypothesis of work undertaken by
Arts Access International (www.artsaccessinternational.org). The hypothesis states that: “the
way, from within ourselves, we look outwards at the world around us influences our perception of
factors in the external environment that impinge on us and how we respond to them. The relationship
is dynamic and symbiotic”.
The development and launch of the fi rst artifi cial satellite Sputnik more than fi ve decades
ago, propelled both the scientifi c and engineering communities to new heights
as they worked together to develop novel solutions to the challenges of spacecraft system
With a vision and a strategy the 21st century city will be green, a healthy place for all and will generate zero
net pollution. This book offers a vision and a strategy.
Productive urban landscapes have two huge challenges to address: CO2 emissions are projected to increase
by two-thirds in the next 20 years, and as the global food production increases so does the number of people
going hungry, with the number of urban hungry soaring.
The symbiotic relationship between a productive landscape and the human settlement system is as old as