We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignmentbased features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efﬁciently ﬁnds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or nonoverlapping ﬂat coordinations into account. ...
Many classical integrable systems (like the Euler, Lagrange and
Kowalewski tops or the Neumann system) as well as finite dimensional reductions
of many integrable PDEs share the property of being algebraically
completely integrable systems4. This means that they are completely integrable
Hamiltonian systems in the usual sense and, moreover, their complexified
invariant tori are open subsets of complex Abelian tori on which the
complexified flow is linear. To such systems the powerful algebro-geometrical
techniques may be applied...
The twonucleotide-bindingdomains (NBDs)of anumberof
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been shown
to be functionally dissimilar, playing different roles in the
transport process. A high degree of co-operativity has been
determined for the NBDs of the human multidrug trans-porter, P-glycoprotein. However, the issue of functional
symmetry in P-glycoprotein remains contentious.
The ﬁrst of these stages is perceptual analysis, which is con-
cerned with organization, grouping, symmetry analysis, complex-
ity and other perceptual features that are known to inﬂuence
aesthetic appreciation. In the second stage, the analysis of familiar-
ity, prototypicality and meaning is performed, together with the
implicit and automatic integration of information with pre-exist-
ing memory structures. Processes involved in explicit classiﬁcation
are performed in the third phase, including those related with the
style and the content of the stimulus.
Even if there is symmetry ex ante between borrower and lender (i.e. the bank knows
the credit quality of the borrower), the collateral helps to alleviate moral hazard problems once
the loan has been granted. In this sense, the collateral pledged helps align the interests of
both lenders and borrowers, avoiding a situation in which the borrower makes less effort to
ensure the success of the project for which finance was given. Thus, collateral makes it
possible to limit the problem of the moral hazard faced by all banks when they lend money.
Collateral can therefore be seen as...
Over the years, the probabilistic method has allowed for the original proof of Johnson and
Lindenstrauss to be greatly simpliﬁed and sharpened, while at the same time giving conceptually
simple randomized algorithms for constructing the embedding [5,6,8]. Roughly speaking, all such
algorithms project the input points onto a spherically random hyperplane through the origin.
While this is conceptually simple, in practical terms it amounts to multiplying the input matrix A
with a dense matrix of real numbers. This can be a non-trivial task in many practical
A speciﬁc example in which the theory developed here is quite crucial is
the analysis of locomotion for the snakeboard, which we study in some detail
in Section 8.4. The snakeboard is a modiﬁed version of a skateboard in which
locomotion is achieved by using a coupling of the nonholonomic constraints with
the symmetry properties of the system. For that system, traditional analysis of
the complete dynamics of the system does not readily explain the mechanism of
Chapter 6 - Protectionism: How nations restrict trade. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Use both partial equilibrium and general equilibrium models to explain the effects of tariffs; use the general equilibrium model of a tariff to explain the important lerner symmetry theorem; extend the analysis to trade quotas, and demonstrate the similarities between tariffs and quotas; describe some the many other ways in which governments restrict international trade.