Syntax

Xem 1-20 trên 600 kết quả Syntax
  • Ebook English Syntax (Tài liệu ôn thi tuyển sinh sau đại học chuyên ngành Giảng dạy tiếng Anh) được biên soạn nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu ôn tập thi tuyển sinh sau đại học cho môn Ngữ học trong chuyên ngành Giảng dạy tiếng Anh. Phần 1 sau đây gồm nội dung section 1 - Các từ loại (Word Classes) và section 2 - Các loại ngữ, cú và câu (Types of phrases, clauses and sentences).

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  • Tiếp nối nội dung phần 1, phần 2 ebook English Syntax (Tài liệu ôn thi tuyển sinh sau đại học chuyên ngành Giảng dạy tiếng Anh gồm nội dung section 3 - Các mối quan hệ ngữ pháp (grammatical relations) và phần 4 - Một số đề thi và đáp án đã thực tế được dùng trong các kỳ thi gần đây.

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  • SPSS 16.0 Command Syntax Reference là phần mềm dành cho dân thống kê, phần mềm này dễ sử dụng, được ưu chuộng nhất hiện nay. Cùng tham khảo tài liệu để nắm được cách sử dụng phần mềm phục vụ cho công việc của bạn.

    pdf2275p vanhieu250295 29-10-2014 57 23   Download

  • We propose a novel technique of learning how to transform the source parse trees to improve the translation qualities of syntax-based translation models using synchronous context-free grammars. We transform the source tree phrasal structure into a set of simpler structures, expose such decisions to the decoding process, and find the least expensive transformation operation to better model word reordering.

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  • We present a syntax-based statistical translation model. Our model transforms a source-language parse tree into a target-language string by applying stochastic operations at each node. These operations capture linguistic differences such as word order and case marking. Model parameters are estimated in polynomial time using an EM algorithm. The model produces word alignments that are better than those produced by IBM Model 5. is conditioned only on word classes and positions in the string, and the duplication and translation are conditioned only on the word identity. ...

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  • Inspired by previous preprocessing approaches to SMT, this paper proposes a novel, probabilistic approach to reordering which combines the merits of syntax and phrase-based SMT. Given a source sentence and its parse tree, our method generates, by tree operations, an n-best list of reordered inputs, which are then fed to standard phrase-based decoder to produce the optimal translation. Experiments show that, for the NIST MT-05 task of Chinese-toEnglish translation, the proposal leads to BLEU improvement of 1.56%. ...

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  • A proper treatment of syntax and semantics in machine translation is introduced and discussed from the empirical viewpoint. For EnglishJapanese machine translation, the syntax directed approach is effective where the Heuristic Parsing Model (HPM) and the Syntactic Role System play important roles. For Japanese-English translation, the semantics directed approach is powerful where the Conceptual Dependency Diagram (CDD) and the Augmented Case Marker System (which is a kind of Semantic Role System) play essential roles.

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  • Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This paper introduces a novel sentence processing model that consists of a parser augmented with a probabilistic logic-based model of coreference resolution, which allows us to simulate how context interacts with syntax in a reading task. Our simulations show that a Weakly Interactive cognitive architecture can explain data which had been provided as evidence for the Strongly Interactive hypothesis. ...

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  • In this paper I present a Master’s thesis proposal in syntax-based Statistical Machine Translation. I propose to build discriminative SMT models using both tree-to-string and tree-to-tree approaches. Translation and language models will be represented mainly through the use of Tree Automata and Tree Transducers. These formalisms have important representational properties that makes them well-suited for syntax modeling. nce it’s u

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  • This paper presents a pronoun resolution algorithm that adheres to the constraints and rules of Centering Theory (Grosz et al., 1995) and is an alternative to Brennan et al.'s 1987 algorithm. The advantages of this new model, the Left-Right Centering Algorithm (LRC), lie in its incremental processing of utterances and in its low computational overhead. The algorithm is compared with three other pronoun resolution methods: Hobbs' syntax-based algorithm, Strube's S-list approach, and the B F P Centering algorithm. ...

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  • Recent work on the syntax-semantics interface (see e.g. (Dalrymple et al., 1994)) uses a fragment of linear logic as a 'glue language' for assembling meanings compositionally. This paper presents a glue language account of how negative polarity items (e.g. ever, any) get licensed within the scope of negative or downward-entailing contexts (Ladusaw, 1979), e.g. Nobody ever left. This treatment of licensing operates precisely at the syntax-semantics interface, since it is carried out entirely within the interface glue language (linear logic). ...

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  • In this paper we present a parser which al lows to make explicit the interconnections between syntax and semantics, to analyze the sentences in a quasi-deterministic fashion and, in many cases, to identify the roles of the various constituents even if the sentance is ill-formed.

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  • We present a new open source toolkit for phrase-based and syntax-based machine translation. The toolkit supports several state-of-the-art models developed in statistical machine translation, including the phrase-based model, the hierachical phrase-based model, and various syntaxbased models. The key innovation provided by the toolkit is that the decoder can work with various grammars and offers different choices of decoding algrithms, such as phrase-based decoding, decoding as parsing/tree-parsing and forest-based decoding. ...

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  • In this paper we compare and contrast two approaches to Machine Translation (MT): the CMU-UKA Syntax Augmented Machine Translation system (SAMT) and UPC-TALP N-gram-based Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). SAMT is a hierarchical syntax-driven translation system underlain by a phrase-based model and a target part parse tree. In N-gram-based SMT, the translation process is based on bilingual units related to word-to-word alignment and statistical modeling of the bilingual context following a maximumentropy framework. ...

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  • What is the relationship between syntax, prosody and phonetics? This paper argues for a declarative constraint-based theory, in which each step in a derivation adds diverse constraints to a pool. Some of these describe well formed objects in the feature structure domain, in terms of both syntactic and prosodic features. Some characterise the relative prominence of constituents as a partial order over some discrete domain (playing the role of metrical grid). Some are simultaneous equations in the reals, whose solutions represent the pitch level of phonetic objects - high and low tones....

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  • Analysing English Sentences provides a concise and clear introduction to current work in syntactic theory, drawing on the key concepts of Chomsky’s Minimalist Program. Assuming little or no prior knowledge of syntax or Minimalism, Radford outlines the core concepts and leading ideas and how they can be used to describe various aspects of the syntax of English. A diverse range of topics is covered, including syntactic structure, null constituents, head movement, case and agreement, and split projections.

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  • The new edition of this highly successful A–Z guide explores the main concepts and terms used in the study of language and linguistics. Containing over 300 entries, thoroughly updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, this book includes entries in: Cognitive linguistics; Discourse analysis; Phonology and phonetics; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics; Syntax and semantics.

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  • [ Team LiB ] D.1 Source Text D.1.1 Library Source Text library_text ::= { library_descriptions } library_descriptions ::= library_declaration | include_statement | config_declaration library_declaration ::= library library_identifier file_path_spec [ { , file_path_spec } ] [ -incdir file_path_spec [ { , file_path_spec } ] ;

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  • Object-Oriented Programming Using C++ contains 14 chapters and five appendices that present clear text explanations, directed hands-on instruction, and a wealth of exercises. In these chapters, readers learn about programming logic in general, C++ syntax in particular, and gain an appreciation for and under- standing of the object-oriented approach.

    pdf817p bongbong_hong 17-12-2012 67 17   Download

  • Tham khảo sách 'comprehension and syntax', giáo dục - đào tạo, sau đại học - mba phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

    pdf165p culao1122 08-01-2013 47 11   Download

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