When will the oil run out? Various estimates put this anywhere from 20 years from
now to more than a century in the future. The shortfall in energy might eventually
be made up by developments in nuclear fusion, fuel cells, and solar technologies,
but what can substitute for gasoline and diesel in all the internal combustion enginepowered
vehicles that will continue to be built worldwide until then? And what will
stand in for petrochemicals as sources of building blocks for the extensive range of
“synthetics” that became indispensable during the twentieth century?...
Synthesis has a central role in the development of Science especially in Chemistry.
The strategies adopted in synthesis of molecules and materials have undergone
considerable changes in recent times and it was felt that it may be necessary to
assess and assimilate information on this topic in a single place. Though, no
originality is claimed to the contents on this topic, the very fact that the available
information on this topic is available in one place itself is considered to be a major
The Tertiary Publications Committee of the Chemical Society decided that after
the appearance of Volume 5 the Specialist Periodical Report ‘Aliphatic Chem-
istry’ should be replaced by two new titles: ‘General and Synthetic Methods’ and
‘Aliphatic and Related Natural Product Chemistry’. This latter will be produced
biennially and this represents the first volume in this series.
Alcohols are synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and the hydroxyl group may be converted to most other functional groups. For these reasons, alcohols are versatile synthetic intermediates. In this chapter, we discuss the physical properties of alcohols and summarize the methods used to synthesize them.
In this chapter, we discuss some of the fundamental principles of polymer chemistry. We begin with a survey of the different kinds of polymers, then consider the reactions used to induce polymerization. Finally, we discuss some of the structural characteristics that determine the physical properties of a polymer.
Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic
organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where
they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of
pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Compounds used in medical applications are most
often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small
organic molecules and biologics, the latter of which are most often medicinal
preparations of proteins. Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as
The advent of ever-more sophisticated methods of information retrieval is revolutionising the
way chemists work. The possibility of accessing a database which, in a matter of seconds, is
capable of providing hundreds of methods of carrying out a synthetic transformation means
that the time in which a synthetic strategy can be planned is reduced enormously.
A subtle, but no less profound effect of this completely new approach is in the way chemists
handle the 'vocabulary' of their profession, a knowledge of possible chemical transformations.
New approaches to tailor-made cellulose/starch/lignin-synthetic polymer graft copolymers with precise control over molecular weight, degree of substitution, backbone-graft linkage, and the overall grafting process are being studied. Cross-linked graft copolymers with exactly defined polymer chain segments between crosslink points have been prepared. The graft copolymers exhibit a two-phase morphology and can function effectively as compatibilizers/interfacial agents to alloy cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials with synthetic polymers.
The discovery of a new drug is a challenging task that includes (a) identifica-
tion of a biochemical target for certain diseases and (b) screening of a large
number of compounds from libraries of compounds arising from synthetic
chemistry, combinatorial chemistry, and natural product isolation for lead gen-
eration. The lead compound is then optimized based on biological activity,
selectivity, pharmacokinetic property, and metabolism.
Physical chemistry of macromolecules is a course that is frequently offered in the
biochemistry curriculum of a college or university. Occasionally, it is also offered in
the chemistry curriculum. When it is offered in the biochemistry curriculum, the
subject matter is usually limited to biological topics and is identical to biophysical
chemistry. When it is offered in the chemistry curriculum, the subject matter is
often centered around synthetic polymers and the course is identical to physical
The organisation of sewers and systems is closely related to the different types of industry and, as a result, a whole array of configurations exist. In all cases, it is essential to avoid unnecessary dilution during treatment.
Natural products are a constant source of potentially active compounds for the treatment of various disorders. The Middle East and tropical regions are believed to have the richest supplies of natural products in the world. Plant derived secondary metabolites have been used by humans to treat acute infections, health disorders and chronic illness for tens of thousands of years. Only during the last 100 years have natural products been largely replaced by synthetic drugs.
In 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Mexico s Petr leos Mexicanos
(PEMEX) began sponsoring this project to characterize the nature and sources of suspended
particulate matter found in the ambient air in Mexico City. This collaborative effort follows
another program sponsored by DOE and PEMEX in the early 1990 s to study gas phase
pollutants and photochemical oxidants in the Valle de Mexico.
The high altitude, the year-
round sunshine, and the complex atmospheric chemistry characteristic of Mexico City create
a challenging laboratory for scientific research.
A microporous+mesoporous material composed of MCM-41 and MFI was produced by a two-step synthetic process. The
solid, called 99MMM-1,:: was characterized by X-ray di4raction (XRD), N2 physisorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
The proton transfer between interconversion tautomers is of importance in synthetic chemistry, such as: keto-enol, imine-enamine, oxime-nitroso [1, 2]…. The keto-enol tautomerization, especially in the -diketone compounds is a common one. Acetyl acetone, one of the -diketone compound, was studied experimentally early and thoroughly [1, 2]. This compound usually exists an equilibrium mixture of enol and keto tautomers with equilibrium
The mode of action of pesticides is extremely fascinating because the subject
covers so many fields of biology and chemistry and has many practical
All disciplines of biology have developed greatly since 1,1,1-trichloro-
di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane — better known as DDT — and the other
synthetic pesticides were introduced just after the Second World War.
Synthetic organic chemistry is equivalent to systematic making and breaking chemical bonds of which the manipulation of carbon-carbon bonds plays an extraordinary role in construction of an organic molecule. Traditionally this chemistry was carried out in organic solutions, however, water or partially aqueous solvents gain more and more significance in organic synthesis recently. To attempt a comprehensive description of this field would be a hopless venture these days, and this chapter gives only examples of the most important ways of carbon-carbon bond formation in aqueous media. ...
Forty-five years ago, agricultural and pharmaceutical chemistry appeared to be following
divergent paths. On the agricultural scene industrial companies were concentrating on the
synthesis of various classes of compounds and when a successful chemical candidate was
discovered, there was a good deal of joy among the synthetic chemists. We were told that
as a result of chemistry life would be better and, indeed, it was. Armed with synthetic agrochemicals,
the American farmer became the envy of the world....
Solubility of the catalysts in water is determined by their overall hydrophilic nature which may arise either as a consequence of the charge of the complex ion as a whole, or may be due to the good solubility of the ligands. Although transition metal complexes with small ionic ligands, such as halides, pseudohalides or simple carboxylates can be useful for specific reactions the possibility of the variation of such ligands is very limited. As in organometallic catalysis in general, phosphines play a leading role in aqueous organometallic catalysis (AOC), too.
The modern drug discovery process, in general, involves the identiﬁcation of a biochemical target (usually protein target), screening of synthetic compounds or compound libraries from combinatorial chemistry/natural sources for a lead compound, and optimization of the lead compound (activity, selectivity, pharmacokinetics, etc.) for recommending a potential clinical candidate.