Natural products are a constant source of potentially active compounds for the treatment of various disorders. The Middle East and tropical regions are believed to have the richest supplies of natural products in the world. Plant derived secondary metabolites have been used by humans to treat acute infections, health disorders and chronic illness for tens of thousands of years. Only during the last 100 years have natural products been largely replaced by synthetic drugs.
Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3].
Pyrethroids are the general term for insecticide pyrethrins and their analogs (cinerins and jasmolins) being included in the flowers of pyrethrum or chrysanthemum. Trace concentrations of pyrethroids exert rapid toxic effects on insects, but are rapidly metabolized for detoxification in warm-blooded animals; they are insecticides with very high safety for humans. On the basis of clarification of chemical structures of the effective components of the pyrethrum, many of new synthetic pyrethroids were developed.
Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are contained in coffee, chocolate (cocoa) and tea (black and green) as weakly basic natural alkaloids. The structures of the methylxanthine derivatives/xanthine derivatives including the above natural alkaloids together with synthetic ones are shown in Table 4.1 . Theophylline, dyphylline (diprophylline) and proxyphylline are being used mainly as bronchodilators and/or heart stimulants. Caffeine mildly stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), awakens people, relieves them from general fatigue and activates mental activities.
β-Lactum antibiotics constitute an important class of antibacterial agents being used extensively for both humans and food-producing animals to treat or prevent infections. The drugs occasionally cause human deaths due to anaphylactic shock during medical treatments, especially when they are parenterally administered without their prior intracutaneous tests. These cases are usually handled as medical accidents (malpractice), and subjected to autopsies and analysis of the drugs used. These antibiotics are composed of cephems ( Table 10.1) and penicillins ( Table 10.
This chapter identify and describe several opium‑derived drugs; list and describe synthetic narcotics; identify and distinguish among stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens; outline techniques used in investigating dangerous drugs and narcotics; assess the motives, methods, and management of drug informants;...
Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic
organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where
they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of
pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Compounds used in medical applications are most
often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small
organic molecules and biologics, the latter of which are most often medicinal
preparations of proteins. Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as
The modern drug discovery process, in general, involves the identiﬁcation of a biochemical target (usually protein target), screening of synthetic compounds or compound libraries from combinatorial chemistry/natural sources for a lead compound, and optimization of the lead compound (activity, selectivity, pharmacokinetics, etc.) for recommending a potential clinical candidate.
Anyone who administers drugs acting on cardiovascular adrenergic mechanisms requires an understanding of how they act in order to use them to the best advantage and with safety. Adrenergic mechanisms Classification of sympathomimetics: by mode of action and selectivity for adrenoceptors Individual sympathomimetics Mucosal decongestants Shock Chronic orthostatic hypotension
Adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine are formed in the body and are used in therapeutics. The natural synthetic path is: tyrosine — dopa — dopamine — noradrenaline — adrenaline.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the immune response as background for understanding the
mechanism of action of immunomodulatory agents. The general principles of pharmacological
immunosuppression are discussed in the context of potential targets, major indications, and
unwanted side effects.
Infection is a major category of human disease and skilled management of antimicrobial drugs is of the first importance.The term chemotherapy is used for the drug treatment of parasitic infections in which the parasites (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, worms) are destroyed or removed without injuring the hostThe use of the term to cover all drug or synthetic drug therapy needlessly removes a distinction which is convenient to the clinician and has the sanction of long usage.
Synthetic polymers fulfill many functions in biotechnology and medicine. In
cell culture technology and tissue engineering they provide the surfaces to
which cells may attach. Cross-linked polymer networks are used for drug
delivery and cell encapsulation. Polymer-based porous membranes can be used to
shield implanted cells from the immune system of the host, while allowing for the
exchange of nutrients and metabolic waste products thus keeping the cells alive
This book presents basic and advanced principles underlying the multivalent
interactions that are prevalent in biological systems. To illustrate important or
complex concepts, the book provides up-to-date examples of synthetic multivalent
molecules, their design, and their biological benefits. Functional roles
displayed by such molecules of both natural and synthetic origin are well
documented in biology, where they exert unique and crucial activities at a
level not readily achievable by monovalent molecules.
The third volume of the Annals of Traditional Chinese Medicine carries
the theme of Cancer Treatment. Since the commencement of this book
series, the Editorial Board has emphasized its main objective, that is to
help modernize Chinese medicine, thus providing a convenient platform
for all scientists, including those who belong to the traditional camp as
well as members of the modern scientific community who insist on strict
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) undertook drug resistance studies during 1965-
67 in nine urban areas of the country. However, this exercise was not a surveillance study
and did not use strict sampling techniques, the centres being selected more for logistic
considerations than for epidemiological reasons. Sputum specimens collected from all
patients attending chest clinics were tested for drug susceptibility to streptomycin,
Isoniazid, para amino salicyctic acid (PAS) and thioacetazone.
The history, culture and community values of East Africans are embedded in agriculture. It is the most
important source of livelihoods for millions of East Africans. The sustainable management of the
agriculture production process is therefore crucial if livelihoods are to be sustained.
Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system, which promotes and enhances agro-
ecosystem health, including bio-diversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity.
For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated
by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic
was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or
semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial
agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be
on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of
Healthy, active living benefits individuals and society in many ways. Positive
associations have been found between increased levels of physical activity, good
nutrition and physical fitness, and healthy body weight, psychological wellbeing,
musculoskeletal health, cognition and readiness to learn. A healthy, active population
enhances productivity, pro-social behaviours and personal satisfaction and has the
potential to reduce the burden of chronic disease.
Newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were tested for presence of HIV infection after informed consent was obtained. Subjects with or without HIV infection who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled, after obtaining written consent, between September 2000 and July 2006 when the required target for enrollment in each arm of the study was attained. These patients had never been treated for TB or had taken anti-tuberculosis drugs for less than one month.
Elucidation of the involvement of protein kinase C subtypes in several dis-eases is an important challenge for the future development of new drug tar-gets. We previously identified the PKI55 protein, which acts as a protein
kinase C modulator, establishing a feedback loop of inhibition.