Synthetic environment

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  • Freshwater sources and oceans have an amazing natural ability to break down some waste materials, but not in the quantities discarded by today' s society. The overload that results eventually puts the ecosystem out of balance. Sometimes nature itself can create these imbalances. But most often our waterways are being polluted by municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes, including many toxic synthetic chemicals which cannot be broken down at all by natural processes.

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  • Computational synthetic biology has borrowed methods, concepts, and techniques from systems biology and electrical engineering. Features of tools for the analysis of biochemical networks and the design of electric circuits have been combined to develop new software, where Standard Biological Parts (physically stored at the MIT Registry) have a mathematical description, based on mass action or Hill kinetics, and can be assembled into genetic networks in a visual, “drag & drop” fashion.

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  • The mode of action of pesticides is extremely fascinating because the subject covers so many fields of biology and chemistry and has many practical implications. All disciplines of biology have developed greatly since 1,1,1-trichloro- di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane — better known as DDT — and the other synthetic pesticides were introduced just after the Second World War.

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  • Since the 1940s the use of pesticides has grown steadily at about 11 percent a year, reaching five million T in 1995. Pesticides and fertilizers play a central role in agriculture and contribute to an enhanced food production worldwide. Agrochemical use, mainly in developed countries, is being reduced while organic (no synthetic chemicals) farming methods are being reinvented.

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  • This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand and supply structures. For the Internet and various mobile media, associated research and application projects now have fixed key words such as "E-learning" and "E-Mental Health" or "M-Learning", "M-Mental Health"....

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  • Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).

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  • Synthetic chemicals known as endocrine disruptors are an excellent example of emerging contaminants where the threats and consequences for water quality, human health, and the environment are still not fully understood. Endocrine disruptors – chemicals that can interfere with hormone action – have been identified among chemicals used in agriculture, industry, and households, and for personal care, including pesticides, disinfectants, plastic additives, and pharmaceuticals like birth control pills.

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  • Finances for Entrepreneurs and Small Business Owners Every budding entrepreneur or small business owner needs to know how to read basic f inancial statements; understand product costing, initial prof it-and-loss development and break-even analysis; manage cash f low; and comprehend various revenue models. In a hands-on environment, you learn how to use integrated Microsoft Excel spreadsheets to develop practical f inancial projections that can immediately impact business operations.

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  • Using solution NMR spectroscopy, three-dimensional structures have been obtained for an 18-residue synthetic polypeptide fragment of 18.5 kDa myelin basic protein (MBP, human residues Q81–T98) under three condi-tions emulating the protein’s natural environment in the myelin membrane to varying degrees: (a) an aqueous solution (100 mmKCl pH 6.5), (b) a mixture of trifluoroethanol (TFE-d2) and water (30 : 70% v⁄v), and (c) a dispersion of 100 mm dodecylphosphocholine (DPC-d38 , 1 : 100 pro-tein⁄lipid molar ratio) micelles....

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  • The most important function of lubricants is the reduction of friction and wear and in some cases, the relative movement of two bearing surfaces is only possible if a lubricant is present. In times when saving energy and resources and cutting emission have become central environmental matters, lubricants are increasingly attracting public awareness. Scientific research has shown that 0.4% of gross domestic product could be saved in terms of energy in Western industrialized countries if current tribological knowledge, i.e.

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  • Synthetic polymers are essential for modern human life, since they are used in industrial and agricultural fields. However, most synthetic polymers that have been developed by using petroleum and coal as raw materials are not compatible with the environment, since they cannot be included in the natural recycling system. There are serious contradictions between the convenience that people require today and compatibility with the natural environment. It is easy to say that we should use only natural materials in order to solve the problems coming from man-made materials.

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  • The production of free radicals (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence of life in an aerobic environment. Free radicals produced from the metabolic activities of oxygen attack biological membranes and lipoproteins via oxidation in a process called lipid perioxidation. This attack damages cells and lipids often in a chain reaction with carbon-based molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a reaction with molecular oxygen. This creates oxidative stress and damage to tissues. Free radicals also damage chromosomal DNA.

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  • 6 Biological Effects of Surfactant-Containing Mixtures and Other Preparations Along with the biological effects of individual chemicals, representatives of synthetic surfactants, it is also necessary to characterize the biological effects of mixtures that contain synthetic surfactants. One has to keep in mind permanently that real pollution of the environment is usually complex as mentioned in Patin (1979), Fedorov (1987), Filenko (1988), Venitsianov (1992), Losev et al. (1993), Bezel et al. (1994), and Krivolutsky (1994).

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  • This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead–acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain ‘expander’ actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment.

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  • The ready availability of carbon through the exploitation of hydrocarbon oil reserves over the past century has lead to a vast amount of organic compounds being introduced into the environment either through the use of oil in fuels or the development and production of other chemical products by industry. Literally tens of thousands of synthetic organic chemicals have been and continue to be developed. Many organic chemicals are known to have potential human health impacts and drinking-water quality standard listings developed.

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