The neurons of the corpus striatum receive an excitatory input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus.
The major outputs project to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticula (SNr), and use
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a transmitter. Major efferent pathways from the globus pallidus
interna and the SNr project to the thalamus. Feedback to the striatum is through the dopaminergic
striatonigral pathway originating in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc; Figure 1).
These separate pathways utilize different neuropeptides and dopamine receptors.
ECE is a critical part of California’s infrastructure for economic development. Like the system of
highways and roads and public transportation, parents need the infrastructure of reliable, affordable
child care in order to productively participate in the workforce. It is important to maintain the ECE
system even during periods of recession and high unemployment. If the system atrophies during
times of economic contraction, a child care shortage during recovery impedes the workforce
mobilization and productivity of many parents and hinders new economic growth.
Parkinsonism and Freezing Gait
Parkinson's disease (Chap. 366) is common, affecting 1% of the population 55. The stooped posture and shuffling gait are characteristic and distinctive features. Patients sometimes accelerate (festinate) with walking or display retropulsion. There may be difficulty with gait initiation (freezing) and a tendency to turn en bloc. Imbalance and falls may develop as the disease progresses over years.
The medical consequences of
operating outside of the normal boundaries of a well tuned musculo-tendinous system are
also poorly understood, although clearly recognized in the persistent atrophy experienced
in microgravity despite rigorous exercise programs.
Muscle force generation is length and velocity sensitive. The process is repetitive in the
sense that muscles will always generate force based on their length-tension and forcevelocity
properties, causing tendon deformation.
Welcome to this book! We’re delighted to have this opportunity to convey the excitement of the world of computer systems. This is not a dry and dreary ﬁeld, where progress is glacial and where new ideas atrophy from neglect. No! Computers are the product of the incredibly vibrant information technology industry, all aspects of which are responsible for almost 10% of the
Also associated with systemic diseases.
Reviewed in section on Purpura.
cReviewed in section on Papulonodular Skin Lesions.
Favors plantar surface of the foot.
Note: TEN, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Livedoid vasculopathy (livedoid vasculitis; atrophie blanche) represents a combination of a vasculopathy plus intravascular thrombosis. Purpuric lesions and livedo reticularis are found in association with painful ulcerations of the lower
extremities. These ulcers are often slow to heal, but when they do, irregularly shaped white scars are formed.