Modern complex dynamical systems1 are highly interconnected and mutually
interdependent, both physically and through a multitude of information
and communication network constraints. The sheer size (i.e., dimensionality)
and complexity of these large-scale dynamical systems often necessitates
a hierarchical decentralized architecture for analyzing and controlling these
systems. Specifically, in the analysis and control-system design of complex
large-scale dynamical systems it is often desirable to treat the overall system
as a collection of interconnected subsystems.
An increasing number of telephone services are offered in a fully automatic
way with the help of speech technology. The underlying systems, called spoken
dialogue systems (SDSs), possess speech recognition, speech understanding,
dialogue management, and speech generation capabilities, and enable a
more-or-less natural spoken interaction with the human user. Nevertheless, the
principles underlying this type of interaction are different from the ones which
govern telephone conversations between humans, because of the limitations of
the machine interaction partner.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Low PAPR space frequency block coding for multiuser MIMO SC-FDMA systems: specific issues for users with different spectral allocations
Chapter 9 - Critical systems specification. To explain how dependability requirements may be identified by analysing the risks faced by critical systems, to explain how safety requirements are generated from the system risk analysis, to explain the derivation of security requirements, to describe metrics used for reliability specification.
To understand an entity’s internal control, the auditor will evaluate the design and implementation of a control.
The auditor's primary consideration is whether, and how, a specific control prevents, or detects and corrects, material misstatements in classes of transactions, account balances or disclosures.
The heaviest emphasis by auditors is on controls over classes of transactions rather than account balances or disclosures
A heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is designed
to satisfy the environmental requirements of comfort or a process,
in a specific building or portion of a building and in a particular
geographic locale. Designers must understand a great deal beyond basic
HVAC system design and the outdoor climate. They must also understand
the process or the comfort requirements.
For example, a few years ago, I was the Development Tools Marketing Manager for a semiconductor manufacturer. I was speaking with the Software Development Tools Manager at our major account. My job was to help convince the customer
that they should be using our RISC processor in their laser printers. Since I owned the tool chain issues, I had to address his specific issues before we could convince him that we had the appropriate support for his design team.
XML is rapidly establishing itself as the metagrammar for interorganizational communication around
the Internet. It is becoming increasingly urgent that business analysts, systems analysts, and software
developers be able to:
• model the information to be represented in XML.
• describe the relationships between the XML and the systems to process it.
Having done so, they must also be able to rapidly generate the boilerplate code associated with
implementing these processes.
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the criteria used in the HVAC
system and equipment selection process, to describe some of the systems
and equipment available, and to develop some of the underlying
philosophy and background related to system selection.
Details of specific systems and items of equipment are discussed in
Interested in developing embedded systems? Since they don't tolerate inefficiency, these systems require a disciplined approach to programming. This easy-to-read guide helps you cultivate a host of good development practices, based on classic software design patterns and new patterns unique to embedded programming. Learn how to build system architecture for processors, not operating systems, and discover specific techniques for dealing with hardware difficulties and manufacturing requirements.
Embedded systems are no longer resembled t from our lives without them. Because of their specialization of these are realized increasingly interacting hardware and software components. This makes a holistic, about hardware and software boundaries, continuous amplification ndnis problem of verification is required. This textbook serves as an introduction to guide the systematic verification of embedded systems, both in specialized procedures for hardware and software verification and the verification of the interfaces.
Design documents evolve from and include the designer’s calculations,
equipment selections, and sketches and are usually presented through
formal drawings and specifications. These construction documents are
the legal means by which the designer conveys the owner’s expectations
to the contractor. The importance of good documentation cannot
he book begins by documenting the common challenges that must be addressed by system architecture engineering. It explores the major principles answering these challenges and forming the basis of MFESA. Next, the authors introduce MFESA, including its primary goals, inputs, tasks, outputs, and assumptions. Then they describe the fundamental concepts and terminology on which the systems architecture engineering is founded.
While drawings and specifications in a sense are the designer’s end
product, this is not really the case. From the owner’s point of view, the
built and operating facility is the only real product. All other activity
is only a prelude to the real thing. To truly succeed, the designer must
follow the design through bidding and construction to start-up and
In a normal alternating current power system, the voltage varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz. When a linear electrical load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current at the same frequency as the voltage (though usually not in phase with the voltage).
When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier, is connected to the system, it draws a current that is not necessarily sinusoidal. The current waveform can become quite complex, depending on the type of load and its interaction with other components of the system.
In general terms, the functional specification states what the proposed system
is to do, whereas design is how the system is to be constructed to meet the
functional specification. However in writing it, some consideration of design
issues must take place, to ensure a realistic system is specified.
Validation of Communications Systems with SDL provides a clear practical guide to validating, by simulation, a telecom system modelled in SDL. SDL, the Specification and Description Language standardised by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), is used to specify and develop complex systems such as GSM, GPRS, UMTS, IEEE 802.11 or Hiperlan. Since the downturn in the telecom industry, validating a system before its implementation has become mandatory to reduce costs.
This manual implements Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 32-10, Installations and Facilities, by
providing guidance for base and command liquid fuels maintenance (LFM) personnel with guide
procedures for field maintenance of permanently installed Air Force-owned, -leased, or -controlled
petroleum storage and dispensing systems. It also supplements detailed manufacturers’ instructions on
specific equipment and applies to all Air Force systems and activities for which the civil engineer (CE)
has maintenance responsibility....
This book is a training document and contains simplifications.
Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the
The contents of this document are subject to revision without
notice due to ongoing progress in methodology, design and
Ericsson assumes no legal responsibility for any error or damage
resulting from the usage of this document.
This document is not intended to replace the technical
documentation that was shipped with your system. Always refer
to that technical documentation during operation and