Systematizing nature

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  • Could it be that we have unfairly neglected French contributions to green theory because of words written more than 350 years ago?1 It was a sixteenth-century Frenchman who, in the opinion of many green thinkers, penned the most notorious line in the history of Western philosophy. René Descartes (1637: 40) proposed that we “make ourselves masters and possessors of nature”2 by subjecting our material environment first to rational analysis and then to technological control.

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  • Natural gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy and an important source of many bulk chemicals and speciality chemicals. It is one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources, and helps to meet the world’s rising demand for cleaner energy into the future. However, exploring, producing and bringing gas to the user or converting gas into desired chemicals is a systematical engineering project, and every step requires thorough understanding of gas and the surrounding environment.

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  • When designing grammars of natural language, typically, more than one formal analysis can account for a given phenomenon. Moreover, because analyses interact, the choices made by the engineer influence the possibilities available in further grammar development. The order in which phenomena are treated may therefore have a major impact on the resulting grammar.

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  • To improve the interaction between students and an intelligent tutoring system, we developed two Natural Language generators, that we systematically evaluated in a three way comparison that included the original system as well. We found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Specifically, it appears that functional aggregation is responsible for the improvement.

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  • We have developed an approach to natural language processing in which the natural language processor is viewed as a knowledge-based system whose knowledge is about the meanings of the utterances of its language. The approach is orzented around the phrase rather than the word as the basic unit. We believe that this p a r a d i ~ for language processing not only extends the capabilities of other natural language systems, but handles those tasks that previous systems could perform in e more systematic and extensible manner. ...

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  • This paper proposes a method for organizing linguistic knowledge in both systematic and flexible fashion. We introduce a purely applicative language (PAL) as an intermediate representation and an object-oriented computation mechanism for its interpretation. PAL enables the establishment of a principled and well-constrained method of interaction among lexicon-oriented linguistic modules. The object-oriented computation mechanism provides a flexible means of abstracting modules and sharing common knowledge. ...

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  • The broad aim of this research is to strengthen the link between the social and environmental sciences, and to foster a change in observed practices by stimulating a dialogue among those involved in the industry, thereby contributing to sustainable development of the local economy. Our scientific aim is to combine a systematic study of the dynamics of the firms involved in the Jepara industrial complex with a quantitative analysis of flows among them, and between them and markets elsewhere. In this report, we summarise the main features of this complex.

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  • SLEκ is a random growth process based on Loewner’s equation with driving parameter a one-dimensional Brownian motion running with speed κ. This process is intimately connected with scaling limits of percolation clusters and with the outer boundary of Brownian motion, and is conjectured to correspond to scaling limits of several other discrete processes in two dimensions. The present paper attempts a first systematic study of SLE. It is proved that for all κ = 8 the SLE trace is a path; for κ ∈ [0, 4] it is a simple path; for κ ∈ (4, 8) it is...

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  • There is currently no independent authoritative statement on the nature and importance of differences in content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and other substances) in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs. This systematic review of the available published literature was designed to seek to determine the size and relevance to health of any differences in content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products.

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  • We discuss the proof of and systematic application of Case’s sum rules for Jacobi matrices. Of special interest is a linear combination of two of his sum rules which has strictly positive terms. Among our results are a complete classification of the spectral measures of all Jacobi matrices J for which J − J0 is Hilbert-Schmidt, and a proof of Nevai’s conjecture that the Szeg˝ condition o holds if J − J0 is trace class.

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  • Ronald Dworkin argues that Americans have been systematically misled about what their Constitution is, and how judges decide what it means. The Constitution, he observes, grants individual rights in extremely abstract terms. The First Amendment prohibits the passing of laws that “abridge the freedom of speech”; the Fifth Amendment insists on “due process of law”; and the Fourteenth Amendment demands “equal protection of the laws” for all persons.

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  • The initiating problem is unstructured design processes and vague descriptions of the form problems in the students’ critique of each other's product proposals, and very vague presentations of the product's aesthetic qualities in their reports. The problem must be seen in relation to the fact that the majority of the students can express themselves clearly in engineering fields and that design methodology is based on technical parameters.

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  • Hungarian is a stereotype of morphologically rich and non-configurational languages. Here, we introduce results on dependency parsing of Hungarian that employ a 80K, multi-domain, fully manually annotated corpus, the Szeged Dependency Treebank. We show that the results achieved by state-of-the-art data-driven parsers on Hungarian and English (which is at the other end of the configurational-nonconfigurational spectrum) are quite similar to each other in terms of attachment scores.

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  • This guideline makes recommendations on best practice in the recognition and management of meningococcal disease in children and young people up to 16 years of age. It addresses the patient journey through pre-hospital care, referral, diagnostic testing, disease management, follow-up care and rehabilitation and considers public health issues. The guideline will be of interest to healthcare professionals, parents and carers who are involved in the diagnosis and management of children and young people with suspected or confirmed meningococcal disease.

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  • If a q.a. system tries to transform an English question directly into the simplest possible formulation of the corresponding data base query, discrepancies between the English lexicon and the structure of the data base cannot be handled well. To be able to deal with such discrepancies in a systematic way, the PHLIQAI system distinguishes different levels of semantic representation; it contains modules which translate from one level to another, as well as a module which simplifies expressions within one level.

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  • Introduction In cooperative man-machine interaction, it is taken as necessary that a system truthfully and informatively respond to a user's question. It is not, however, sufficient. In particular, if the system has reason to believe that its planned response nfight lead the user to draw an inference that it knows to be false, then it must block it by nmdifying or adding to its response. The problem is that a system neither can nor should explore all eonchtsions a user might possibly draw: its reasoning must be constrained in some systematic and well-motivated way.

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  • Kamp's Discourse Representation T h e o r y is a major breakthrough regarding the systematic translation of natural language discourse into logical form. W e have therefore chosen to m a r r y the User Specialty Languages System, which was originally designed as a natural language frontend to a relational database system, with this n e w theory. In the paper w e try to s h o w taking - for the sake of simplicity - Kemp's fragment of English h o w this is achieved.

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  • In this paper the organization of the grammars in the Rosetta machine translation system is described and it is shown how this organization makes it possible to translate between words of different syntactic categories in a systematic way. It is also shown how the organization chosen makes it possible to translate 'small clauses' into full clauses and vice versa. The central concept worked out here in some detail is the concept of 'partial isom o r p h y ' between subgrammars. The system as described here has been implemented and is currently being tested. and a control...

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  • My editorial objective in this new series is to present to the scientific public a collection of texts that satisfies one of two criteria: the systematic presentation of a specialised but important topic within materials science or engineering that has not previously (or recently) been the subject of full-length treatment and is in rapid development; or the systematic account of a broad theme in materials science or engineering. The books are not, in general, designed as undergraduate texts, but rather are intended for use at graduate level and by established research workers.

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  • In 451 CE, the Council of Chalcedon issued its “two-natures/one person” definition, which set the boundaries for medieval Christology within the Latin West. The promulgation spoke of ...

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