Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–speciﬁc
interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least
resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys-
temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health
inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel-
oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different
diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.
The general meaning of gene therapy is to correct defective genes that are responsible
for disease development. The most common form of gene therapy involves the
insertion, alteration or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological
tissues. Many of gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery
of therapeutic genes made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems.
Recently, the viral vectors in laboratory and clinical use have been based on RNA and
DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges.
Long-Term Expression in Genetic Disease: In Vivo Gene Transfer with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors
Recombinant AAV vectors have emerged as attractive gene delivery vehicles for genetic disease. Engineered from a small replication-defective DNA virus, they are devoid of viral coding sequences and trigger very little immune response in experimental animals. They are capable of transducing nondividing target cells, and the donated DNA is stabilized primarily in an episomal form, thus minimizing risks associated with insertional mutagenesis.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 107. Transfusion Biology and Therapy
Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes.
Intermediate-risk patients are those
with any of the following criteria: microscopic tumour invasion into the perithyroidal
tissues at initial surgery, cervical lymph node metastases or 131I uptake outside the thyroid
bed on the initial post-treatment scan, or tumour with aggressive histology or vascular
invasion. Finally, high-risk patients have macroscopic tumour invasion, incomplete tumour
resection, distant metastases or elevated thyroglobulin out of proportion to what is seen on
the post-treatment scan (Cooper et al., 2009).
This system, designed in cooperation with the banking industry, is based on chipcard technology and
corresponds to the electronic cash system above. The only difference is the possibility of offline
authorisation. An authorisation up to a certain limit laid down individually by the issuing bank is stored
on the bank card’s chip. This amount decreases with each payment and, as long as the remaining
amount is sufficient, transactions are authorised offline. In order to pay, the customers must enter their
PIN, which is validated on the chip.
Rh System The Rh system is the second most important blood group system in pretransfusion testing. The Rh antigens are found on a 30- to 32-kDa RBC membrane protein that has no defined function. Although 40 different antigens in the Rh system have been described, five determinants account for the vast majority of phenotypes. The presence of the D antigen confers Rh "positivity," while persons who lack the D antigen are Rh negative. Two allelic antigen pairs, E/e and C/c, are also found on the Rh protein. The three Rh genes, E/e, D, and C/c, are arranged in tandem...
The MNSsU system is regulated by genes on chromosome 4. M and N are determinants on glycophorin A, an RBC membrane protein, and S and s are determinants on glycophorin B. Anti-S and anti-s IgG antibodies may develop after pregnancy or transfusion and lead to hemolysis. Anti-U antibodies are rare but problematic; virtually every donor is incompatible because nearly all persons express U.
The Kell protein is very large (720 amino acids), and its secondary structure contains many different antigenic epitopes. The immunogenicity of Kell is third behind the ABO and Rh systems.
We have come so far so fast in understanding RNA interference (RNAi) and its central role in biology. Rarely has a novel mechanism in molecular genetics had such broad implications, ranging from gene therapy and drug discovery to our very understanding of what the word ‘gene’ means. Every major pharmaceutical company has a substantial effort now in RNAi technology, and among the smaller biotechnology companies RNAi is the mainstay of several, with
Monitoring for coverage, effectiveness, impact, usage (loss and wastage), and safety of
vaccines should be planned and use existing systems as much as possible. Collection of
coverage data can be challenging, and should include disaggregated data by dose and age
at delivery site. Nominal registries may be useful for collecting coverage information and
ensuring proper follow-up, but may require unique national identifiers. With appropriate
technical support, vaccine impact evaluations may be done using HPV prevalence studies
in certain settings.
Goonatilake and Herath (2007) focus on the effect of news that
surfaces throughout the day in the stock market. News stories about publicly traded companies were labeled
positive, negative or neutral according to price changes in the company stock. Takahashi, Takahashi, Takahashi and
Tsuda (2007) use Naive Bayes classifier for text labeling.They measure stock price change before and after
publishing news. They performe a morphological analysis and pattern matching to extract keywords then good, bad
and neutral news clusters are created.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Ultrasound imaging and therapy" presents the following contents: Diagnostic ultrasound imaging (ultrasound elastography, quantitative ultrasound techniques for diagnostic imaging and monitoring, task based design and evaluation of ultrasonic imaging systems,...), therapeutic and interventional ultrasound imaging.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Cardiac resynchronization therapy" presents the following contents: Epidemiology of heart failure, pathobiology of left ventricular dyssynchrony, determinants of remodeling in systolic heart failure, summary of all large randomized trials, cardiac resynchronization therapy in special populations,...
Chapter 1 - General knowledge of body systems. This chapter presents the following content: Areas of competence, anatomy and physiology, the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the muscular system, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system,...
(BQ) Part 1 book "Principles of pharmacology - The pathophysiologic basis of drug therapy" presentation of content: Fundamental principles of pharmacology, principles of neuropharmacology (fundamental principles of neuropharmacology, principles of autonomic and peripheral nervous system pharmacology, principles of central nervous system pharmacology), principles of cardiovascular pharmacology.
In general, the health status at old age has an important individual and social relevance. The
vulnerability is increasing by physiological and morphological changes in the organism and
central nervous system during the ageing process. The indicators of physiological health are
based on prevalence of disabilities and causes of death. In Germany the main causes of death
are circulatory diseases, neoplasms, diseases of respiratory system and diseases of digestive
system (Statistisches Bundesamt 2007a; Nolte, Shkolinikov & McKee 2000).
It is our pleasure to present this special volume on tissue engineering in the
series Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology. This volume
reflects the emergence of tissue engineering as a core discipline of modern
biomedical engineering, and recognizes the growing synergies between the
technological developments in biotechnology and biomedicine. Along this
vein, the focus of this volume is to provide a biotechnology driven perspective
on cell engineering fundamentals while highlighting their significance in producing
Stem cell research has the potential to affect the lives of millions
of people in the United States and around the world.
This research is now regularly front-page news because of the
controversy surrounding the derivation of stem cells from
human embryos. Realizing the promise of stem cells for
yielding new medical therapies will require us to grapple with
more than just scientific uncertainties. The stem cell debate
has led scientists and nonscientists alike to contemplate
profound issues, such as who we are and what makes us
Currently, adult cells seem to have certain
advantages regarding rapid clinical translation. Most biomaterials used in Tissue
Engineering are based on acellular matrices or polyglycolic acid. Both materials
must provide tissue support until the cells produce their own extracellular matrix.
Ideally, they degrade thereafter without any toxic byproducts. Over the last years
we started to understand the influence of the biomechanical environment allowing
these cell-biomaterial composites to unfold their full functional potential.
Nonetheless, data is data, and whilst the interpretation may be suspect (which can
happen with even the best controlled studies), the data is the most valuable asset in a
research paper. Of course insight that either consolidates or furthers our
understanding is vital, but without data it can be nothing more than an armchair idea.
Many journals require the highest levels of scientific rigour, which may make some
research inaccessible - really a form of scientific censorship.