Systemic therapy

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  • Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–specific interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys- temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel- oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.

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  • The general meaning of gene therapy is to correct defective genes that are responsible for disease development. The most common form of gene therapy involves the insertion, alteration or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues. Many of gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery of therapeutic genes made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems. Recently, the viral vectors in laboratory and clinical use have been based on RNA and DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges.

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  • Intermediate-risk patients are those with any of the following criteria: microscopic tumour invasion into the perithyroidal tissues at initial surgery, cervical lymph node metastases or 131I uptake outside the thyroid bed on the initial post-treatment scan, or tumour with aggressive histology or vascular invasion. Finally, high-risk patients have macroscopic tumour invasion, incomplete tumour resection, distant metastases or elevated thyroglobulin out of proportion to what is seen on the post-treatment scan (Cooper et al., 2009).

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  • This system, designed in cooperation with the banking industry, is based on chipcard technology and corresponds to the electronic cash system above. The only difference is the possibility of offline authorisation. An authorisation up to a certain limit laid down individually by the issuing bank is stored on the bank card’s chip. This amount decreases with each payment and, as long as the remaining amount is sufficient, transactions are authorised offline. In order to pay, the customers must enter their PIN, which is validated on the chip.

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  • Long-Term Expression in Genetic Disease: In Vivo Gene Transfer with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors Recombinant AAV vectors have emerged as attractive gene delivery vehicles for genetic disease. Engineered from a small replication-defective DNA virus, they are devoid of viral coding sequences and trigger very little immune response in experimental animals. They are capable of transducing nondividing target cells, and the donated DNA is stabilized primarily in an episomal form, thus minimizing risks associated with insertional mutagenesis.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 107. Transfusion Biology and Therapy Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes.

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  • We have come so far so fast in understanding RNA interference (RNAi) and its central role in biology. Rarely has a novel mechanism in molecular genetics had such broad implications, ranging from gene therapy and drug discovery to our very understanding of what the word ‘gene’ means. Every major pharmaceutical company has a substantial effort now in RNAi technology, and among the smaller biotechnology companies RNAi is the mainstay of several, with

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  • Monitoring for coverage, effectiveness, impact, usage (loss and wastage), and safety of vaccines should be planned and use existing systems as much as possible. Collection of coverage data can be challenging, and should include disaggregated data by dose and age at delivery site. Nominal registries may be useful for collecting coverage information and ensuring proper follow-up, but may require unique national identifiers. With appropriate technical support, vaccine impact evaluations may be done using HPV prevalence studies in certain settings.

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  • Rh System The Rh system is the second most important blood group system in pretransfusion testing. The Rh antigens are found on a 30- to 32-kDa RBC membrane protein that has no defined function. Although 40 different antigens in the Rh system have been described, five determinants account for the vast majority of phenotypes. The presence of the D antigen confers Rh "positivity," while persons who lack the D antigen are Rh negative. Two allelic antigen pairs, E/e and C/c, are also found on the Rh protein. The three Rh genes, E/e, D, and C/c, are arranged in tandem...

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  • The MNSsU system is regulated by genes on chromosome 4. M and N are determinants on glycophorin A, an RBC membrane protein, and S and s are determinants on glycophorin B. Anti-S and anti-s IgG antibodies may develop after pregnancy or transfusion and lead to hemolysis. Anti-U antibodies are rare but problematic; virtually every donor is incompatible because nearly all persons express U. The Kell protein is very large (720 amino acids), and its secondary structure contains many different antigenic epitopes. The immunogenicity of Kell is third behind the ABO and Rh systems.

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  • Goonatilake and Herath (2007) focus on the effect of news that surfaces throughout the day in the stock market. News stories about publicly traded companies were labeled positive, negative or neutral according to price changes in the company stock. Takahashi, Takahashi, Takahashi and Tsuda (2007) use Naive Bayes classifier for text labeling.They measure stock price change before and after publishing news. They performe a morphological analysis and pattern matching to extract keywords then good, bad and neutral news clusters are created.

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  • In general, the health status at old age has an important individual and social relevance. The vulnerability is increasing by physiological and morphological changes in the organism and central nervous system during the ageing process. The indicators of physiological health are based on prevalence of disabilities and causes of death. In Germany the main causes of death are circulatory diseases, neoplasms, diseases of respiratory system and diseases of digestive system (Statistisches Bundesamt 2007a; Nolte, Shkolinikov & McKee 2000).

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  • It is our pleasure to present this special volume on tissue engineering in the series Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology. This volume reflects the emergence of tissue engineering as a core discipline of modern biomedical engineering, and recognizes the growing synergies between the technological developments in biotechnology and biomedicine. Along this vein, the focus of this volume is to provide a biotechnology driven perspective on cell engineering fundamentals while highlighting their significance in producing functional tissues.

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  • Currently, adult cells seem to have certain advantages regarding rapid clinical translation. Most biomaterials used in Tissue Engineering are based on acellular matrices or polyglycolic acid. Both materials must provide tissue support until the cells produce their own extracellular matrix. Ideally, they degrade thereafter without any toxic byproducts. Over the last years we started to understand the influence of the biomechanical environment allowing these cell-biomaterial composites to unfold their full functional potential.

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  • Stem cell research has the potential to affect the lives of millions of people in the United States and around the world. This research is now regularly front-page news because of the controversy surrounding the derivation of stem cells from human embryos. Realizing the promise of stem cells for yielding new medical therapies will require us to grapple with more than just scientific uncertainties. The stem cell debate has led scientists and nonscientists alike to contemplate profound issues, such as who we are and what makes us human beings.

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  • Nonetheless, data is data, and whilst the interpretation may be suspect (which can happen with even the best controlled studies), the data is the most valuable asset in a research paper. Of course insight that either consolidates or furthers our understanding is vital, but without data it can be nothing more than an armchair idea. Many journals require the highest levels of scientific rigour, which may make some research inaccessible - really a form of scientific censorship.

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  • Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal human malignancies with extremely poor prognosis making it the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The molecular mechanisms of pancreatic carcinogenesis are not well understood. The major focus of these two books is towards the understanding of the basic biology of pancreatic carcinogenesis, identification of newer molecular targets and the development of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.

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  • In 1932 J & A Churchill Ltd published the first edition of Recent Advances in Anaesthesia and Analgesia (Including Oxygen Therapy). Nearly 70 years later we commented in the Preface to the Millennium (21st) edition of Recent Advances in Anaesthesia and Analgesia that the pace of advances in anaesthesia showed no sign of abating. Although 2 years further on this statement remains true, change has now affected the title as well. Harcourt Publishers Ltd has transferred the title from Churchill Livingstone to Greenwich Medical Media Ltd.

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  • The meeting began with educational sessions addressing Teaching of Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology, Biological Agents and Targeted Therapies, Nursing and Practice Innovations, and Pathology along with several industry sponsored symposia. In addition to the educational sessions the offerings included Interactive, Free Communication, Meet- the-Professor Sessions and Tumor Boards covering a wide range of topics including the Role of Sentinel Node Mapping, Robotic Surgery, Neo-Adjuvant chemotherapy, Fertility Sparing Surgery and The New FIGO Staging System to name a few.

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  • Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems often are quite distinct from young ones. Recognition and understanding of the special nutrition problems of the aged are being intensively researched and tested, especially due to the increases in the elderly in the general population. In developed countries, economic restrictions and physical inactivity during aging can signifi cantly reduce food intakes, contributing to nutritional stresses and needs. Many disease entities and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged.

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