Systems biologists

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  • Poverty is a severe problem in Africa, Asia, South America and even in pockets of the developed world. Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation.

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  • During development, cells and tissues undergo dynamic changes in pattern and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other time during an organism’s life. Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo presents a framework within which physics can be used to analyze these biological phenomena. Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages and components of biological development are introduced and then analyzed from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no mathematics beyond basic calculus.

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  • Research and development in bioengineering and medical technology, conducted during recent decades, have led to spectacular progress in clinical medicine. These achievements have triggered an enormous increase in the number of courses offered in the areas of bioengineering, clinical technology and medical informatics; nowadays, most major universities offer curricula oriented towards these fields. The majority of participants however come from engineering backgrounds and so modules dealing with basic biological and medical sciences have been included.

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  • The idea for this book stems from a meeting sponsored by the European Union, organized by N. van Breemen, and held in Doorweerth at the end of 1991. At this meeting a large number of European scientists discussed the different issues related to the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems. One of the objectives was to gather scientists from various disciplines (biologists, chemists, ecologists, agriculturalists) to pool their different disciplinary approaches and come up with a common perspective for future research on soil organic matter.

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  • In the past few years we have observed an interesting mutual interest of two fields of research and development in each other. Life sciences area researchers discovered the opportunities offered my micro- and nanotechnology, while people from the microfluidics and BIOMEMS area discovered the application potential of these technologies in cell biology. Unfortunately, these two research communities share little in common: they read and publish in different scientific journals, have incompatible jargons, attend separate conferences, and have a different scientific approach and culture.

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  • Many mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis, grow extremely slowly in the laboratory and require 3–8 weeks of incubation on solid medium or at least 2 weeks in a radiometric liquid culture system (BACTEC). This slow growth often leads to delay in TB diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) methods allow for detection of mycobacterial DNA or RNA directly from the specimens before the culture results are available. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two NAA tests for direct detection of M. tuberculosis from clinical specimens.

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  • PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF A DISCRETE-TIME DIFFUSIVE SYSTEM GOVERNED BY BACKWARD DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS BINXIANG DAI AND JIEZHONG ZOU Received 22 November 2004 and in revised form 16 January 2005 A discrete-time delayed diffusion model governed by backward difference equations is investigated. By using the coincidence degree and the related continuation theorem as well as some priori estimates, easily verifiable sufficient criteria are established for the existence of positive periodic solutions. 1.

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  • This lecture introduces you to studying life. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is biology? How is all life on earth related? How do biologists investigate life? How does biology influence public policy?

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  • Knowing nature is a complex, multiple, and highly political process. This is clearly illustrated by looking at the knowledge and management of a piece of land, seemingly isolated but impacting and impacted by decision- making processes, politics, and technology around the world. A barren stretch of ground in the Sahelian region of West Africa holds diverse meanings to different people and institutions. Livestock herders value it for its proximity to a water point and for the grass it will grow once the rains come.

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  • Lecture Biology - Chapter 25: Reconstructing and using phylogenies. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is phylogeny? How are phylogenetic trees constructed? How do biologists use phylogenetic trees? How does phylogeny relate to classification?

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  • The biological sciences have become more quantitative and information-driven since emerging computational and mathematical tools facilitate collection and analysis of vast amounts of biological data. Complexity analysis of biological systems provides biological knowledge for the organization, management, and mining of biological data by using advanced computational tools. The biological data are inherently complex, nonuniform, and collected at multiple temporal and spatial scales.

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  • The Mekong River system supports one of the world’s largest and most diverse inland fisheries. It includes a broad assortment of operations, ranging from solitary fishers to largescale commercial enterprises. The catch contains a high proportion of fishes whose lifecycles involve migrations between feeding and spawning grounds and dry season refuges. The preservation of the river’s fisheries, therefore, partly depends on keeping the migration routes these fish use free from obstructions and barriers that could critically disrupt their lifecycles.

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  • This book is about how to construct and use computational models of specific parts of the nervous system, such as a neuron, a part of a neuron or a network of neurons. It is designed to be read by people from a wide range of backgrounds from the biological, physical and computational sciences. The word ‘model’ can mean different things in different disciplines, and even researchers in the same field may disagree on the nuances of its meaning.

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  • Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals of describing variation in natural systems and discovering its functional basis. Within this common framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize historical and lineage-dependent processes and hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists, while cognizant of historical processes, tend to explain variation in terms of the contemporary effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.

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  • International Tables for Crystallography, Volume F, Crystal- lography of Biological Macromolecules, was commissioned by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) in recognition of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macro- molecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a whole cell.

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  • The new body plans allowed animals to organize themselves into new ecosys- tems the Earth had never seen before. The earliest animals appear to have lived like sponges do today—trapping microbes or organic matter from the water as they remained anchored to the seafloor. But then animals evolved with guts and nervous systems, able to swim through the water or burrow into the muck. With their guts, they could swallow larger microbes, and, eventually, could even start to attack other animals.

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  • This chapter explain the justification for taxonomy based on a PhyloCode; explain the importance of distinguishing between homology and analogy; distinguish between the following terms: monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups; shared ancestral and shared derived characters; orthologous and paralogous genes; define horizontal gene transfer and explain how it complicates phylogenetic trees.

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