Poverty is a severe problem in Africa, Asia, South America and even in pockets of the
developed world. Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological
nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on
During development, cells and tissues undergo dynamic changes in pattern
and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other
time during an organism’s life. Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo presents
a framework within which physics can be used to analyze these biological
Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages
and components of biological development are introduced and then analyzed
from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no
mathematics beyond basic calculus.
Research and development in bioengineering and medical technology, conducted during
recent decades, have led to spectacular progress in clinical medicine. These
achievements have triggered an enormous increase in the number of courses offered in
the areas of bioengineering, clinical technology and medical informatics; nowadays,
most major universities offer curricula oriented towards these fields. The majority of
participants however come from engineering backgrounds and so modules dealing with
basic biological and medical sciences have been included.
The idea for this book stems from a meeting sponsored by the European Union,
organized by N. van Breemen, and held in Doorweerth at the end of 1991. At this
meeting a large number of European scientists discussed the different issues
related to the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in terrestrial
ecosystems. One of the objectives was to gather scientists from various disciplines
(biologists, chemists, ecologists, agriculturalists) to pool their different disciplinary
approaches and come up with a common perspective for future research on
soil organic matter.
In the past few years we have observed an interesting mutual interest of
two fields of research and development in each other. Life sciences area
researchers discovered the opportunities offered my micro- and
nanotechnology, while people from the microfluidics and BIOMEMS area
discovered the application potential of these technologies in cell biology.
Unfortunately, these two research communities share little in common: they
read and publish in different scientific journals, have incompatible jargons,
attend separate conferences, and have a different scientific approach and
Many mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis, grow extremely slowly in the
laboratory and require 3–8 weeks of incubation on solid medium or at least 2 weeks in a
radiometric liquid culture system (BACTEC). This slow growth often leads to delay in TB
diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) methods allow for detection of mycobacterial
DNA or RNA directly from the specimens before the culture results are available. The Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two NAA tests for direct detection of M.
tuberculosis from clinical specimens.
PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF A DISCRETE-TIME DIFFUSIVE SYSTEM GOVERNED BY BACKWARD DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
BINXIANG DAI AND JIEZHONG ZOU Received 22 November 2004 and in revised form 16 January 2005
A discrete-time delayed diﬀusion model governed by backward diﬀerence equations is investigated. By using the coincidence degree and the related continuation theorem as well as some priori estimates, easily veriﬁable suﬃcient criteria are established for the existence of positive periodic solutions. 1.
This lecture introduces you to studying life. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is biology? How is all life on earth related? How do biologists investigate life? How does biology influence public policy?
Knowing nature is a complex, multiple, and highly political process.
This is clearly illustrated by looking at the knowledge and management of a
piece of land, seemingly isolated but impacting and impacted by decision- making
processes, politics, and technology around the world.
A barren stretch of ground in the Sahelian region of West Africa holds diverse meanings
to different people and institutions. Livestock herders value it for its proximity to a
water point and for the grass it will grow once the rains come.
Lecture Biology - Chapter 25: Reconstructing and using phylogenies. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is phylogeny? How are phylogenetic trees constructed? How do biologists use phylogenetic trees? How does phylogeny relate to classification?
The biological sciences have become more quantitative and information-driven
since emerging computational and mathematical tools facilitate collection and
analysis of vast amounts of biological data. Complexity analysis of biological
systems provides biological knowledge for the organization, management, and
mining of biological data by using advanced computational tools. The biological
data are inherently complex, nonuniform, and collected at multiple temporal and
The Mekong River system supports one of the world’s largest and most diverse inland
fisheries. It includes a broad assortment of operations, ranging from solitary fishers to largescale
commercial enterprises. The catch contains a high proportion of fishes whose lifecycles
involve migrations between feeding and spawning grounds and dry season refuges.
The preservation of the river’s fisheries, therefore, partly depends on keeping the migration
routes these fish use free from obstructions and barriers that could critically disrupt their lifecycles.
This book is about how to construct and use computational models of specific
parts of the nervous system, such as a neuron, a part of a neuron or a
network of neurons. It is designed to be read by people from a wide range of
backgrounds from the biological, physical and computational sciences. The
word ‘model’ can mean different things in different disciplines, and even researchers
in the same field may disagree on the nuances of its meaning.
Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals
of describing variation in natural systems and
discovering its functional basis. Within this common
framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize
historical and lineage-dependent processes and
hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions
and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists,
while cognizant of historical processes, tend
to explain variation in terms of the contemporary
effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.
International Tables for Crystallography, Volume F, Crystal-
lography of Biological Macromolecules, was commissioned by
the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) in recognition
of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macro-
molecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of
biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a
The new body plans allowed animals to organize themselves into new ecosys-
tems the Earth had never seen before. The earliest animals appear to have lived
like sponges do today—trapping microbes or organic matter from the water as
they remained anchored to the seafloor. But then animals evolved with guts and
nervous systems, able to swim through the water or burrow into the muck. With
their guts, they could swallow larger microbes, and, eventually, could even start
to attack other animals.