Xem 1-20 trên 231 kết quả Systems evolved
  • W hat makes for a good health system? What makes a health system fair? And how do we know whether a health system is performing as well as it could? These questions are the subject of public debate in most countries around the world. Naturally, answers will depend on the perspective of the respondent.

    pdf227p crius75 07-01-2013 21 1   Download

  • Earth as an Evolving Planetary System presents the key topics and questions relating to the evolution of the Earth's crust and mantle over the last four billion years. It examines the role of plate tectonics in the geological past via geological evidence and proposed plate reconstruction. Kent Condie synthesizes data from the fields of oceanography, geophysics, planetology, and geochemistry to examine the key topics and questions relating to the evolution of the Earth's crust and mantle.

    pdf463p ktct_1669 08-05-2012 53 19   Download

  • Design documents evolve from and include the designer’s calculations, equipment selections, and sketches and are usually presented through formal drawings and specifications. These construction documents are the legal means by which the designer conveys the owner’s expectations to the contractor. The importance of good documentation cannot be overemphasized.

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  • Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma.

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  • Database management has evolved from a specialized computer application to a central component of a modern computing environment, and, as a result, knowl- edge about database systems has become an essential part of an education in com- puter science. In this text, we present the fundamental concepts of database manage- ment. These concepts include aspects of database design, database languages, and database-system implementation.

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  • This is the first of two chapters on object-oriented tools and techniques for systems development. This chapter focuses on object modeling during systems analysis. You will know object modeling as a systems analysis technique when you can: Define object modeling and explain its benefits, recognize and understand the basic concepts and constructs of object modeling, define the UML and its various types of diagrams, evolve a business requirements use-case model into a system analysis use-case model.

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  • What an exciting time to be involved in game design and multimedia driven application development! Computer hardware continues to evolve and increase in speed in shorter and shorter cycles. And no segment of computer hardware has seen more growth in recent years than the video card market. Of course, there’s more to multimedia than video. There’s sound, user input, and music to produce. The Web has created wonderful opportunities to present video and animations.

    pdf603p trannhu 08-08-2009 284 100   Download

  • The last decade proved to be hugely successful for the mobile communications industry, characterised by continued and rapid growth in demand, spurred on by new technological advances and innovative marketing techniques. Of course, when we refer to mobile communications, we tend to implicitly refer to cellular systems, such as GSM. The plight of the mobile-satellite industry over the last decade, although eventful, has, at times, been more akin to an out of control roller coaster ride.

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  • Our first chapter puts LTE into its historical context, and lays out its requirements and key technical features. We begin by reviewing the architectures of UMTS and GSM, and by introducing some of the terminology that the two systems use. We then summarize the history of mobile telecommunication systems, discuss the issues that have driven the development of LTE, and show how UMTS has evolved first into LTE and then into an enhanced version known as LTE-Advanced. The chapter closes by reviewing the standardization process for LTE....

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  • The previous chapters have concentrated on the two leading second generation (2G) cellular systems: GSM and IS-95. These systems are deployed in many parts of the world and will continue to operate and evolve during the next decade as third generation (3G) systems are rolled out. We may expect that the new 3G systems will be harmonised with their evolved 2G counterparts, and that slowly 2G spectra will be refarmed to provide extra 3G spectra. No 3G systems are currently deployed, although trials are in progress. As a consequence, this chapter, which deals with systems that are about to be...

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  • Mobile communication networks were commercially launched as Circuit-Switched (CS) systems centering on speech communication services. The First-Generation (1G) analog system evolved into the Second-Generation (2G) digital system, followed by the introduction of Packet-Switched (PS) communication system. These conventional mobile communication systems were realized with different technologies by country and region, and there was no internationally unified standard.

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  • Decision support systems (DSS) have evolved over the past four decades from theoretical concepts into real world computerized applications. DSS architecture contains three key components: a knowledge base, a computerized model, and a user interface. DSS simulate cognitive decision-making functions of humans based on artificial intelligence methodologies (including expert systems, data mining, machine learning, connectionism, logistical reasoning, etc.) in order to perform decision support functions.

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  • Control engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans were the main method for controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls....

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  • This paper addresses issues in financial sector regulation from two perspectives. First, it reports on the state of implementation of financial regulatory standards across banking, insurance, and securities sectors in a select group of Fund member countries. Second, it raises issues relating to the design of these three sector standards, arising from the implementation experience and the evolving structure of financial systems. In this regard, the paper identifies a few emerging regulatory risks and some cross-sectoral issues that may warrant further guidance by standard setters....

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  • Remediation of hazardous wastes present in the subsurface has evolved with time and has been influenced by various factors over the years. During the early years, direction and efforts were mostly influenced by the regulations in place and the need for compliance and protection of human health and environment. The contaminants primarily focused upon during this time were the petroleum-related contaminants stemming from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs

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  • Medicine is, fortunately, constantly evolving. Imaging diagnosis is no exception. Technical improvements guarantee further developments in diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have attained a recognized value in the diagnosis of the heart, which is continuing to increase. For this reason, we have now provided a separate chapter on diagnostic imaging of the heart. We have placed sectional CT images next to MR images of the heart to facilitate classification. We have limited ourselves to scans which are presently recognized as standard.

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  • Medicine is, fortunately, constantly evolving. Imaging diagnosis is no exception. Technical improvements guarantee further developments in diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have attained a recognized value in the diagnosis of the heart, which is continuing to increase. For this reason, we have now provided a separate chapter on diagnostic imaging of the heart. We have placed sectional CT images next to MR images of the heart to facilitate classification. We have limited ourselves to scans which are presently recognized as standard.

    pdf116p thix1minh 16-10-2012 82 25   Download

  • Mechatronics, the synergistic blend of mechanics, electronics, and computer science, has evolved over the past twenty-five years, leading to a novel stage of engineering design. By integrating the best design practices with the most advanced technologies, mechatronics aims at realizing highquality products, guaranteeing, at the same time, a substantial reduction of time and costs of manufacturing.

    pdf360p 123859674 02-07-2012 62 23   Download

  • 2 Payment Systems Survey. This chapter provides a concise history of various payment systems—barter, coins, drafts, and notes—and how drafts and notes became paper money and evolved to fiat money. Checks, wire transfers, automated clearing houses, and global funds-transfer systems

    pdf16p mama15 29-09-2010 71 22   Download

  • We show how a simple but innovative synthesis of key disciplines such as computing science and cognitive science, can be deployed in combination with such topics as ergonomics, e-learning, pedagogy, cognitive psychology, interactive system design, neuropsychology etc to create new learning worlds that boost human learning to meet the demands of the 21st century. 2.

    pdf610p lulanphuong 22-03-2012 87 21   Download

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