Discovery of a new chemical entity that exerts pharmacological effects for
curing or treating diseases or relieving symptoms is only the first step in
the drug developmental process. In the developmental cycle of a new
drug, the delivery of a desired amount of a therapeutic agent to the target
at a specific time or duration is as important as its discovery. In order
to realize the optimal therapeutic outcomes, a delivery system should
be designed to achieve the optimal drug concentration at a predetermined
rate and at the desired location....
Products of nanotechnology are expected to revolutionize
modern medicine, as evidenced by recent scientific advances
and global initiatives to support nanotechnology and nanomedicine
research. The field of drug delivery is a direct beneficiary
of these advancements. Due to their versatility in
targeting tissues, accessing deep molecular targets, and controlling
drug release, nanoparticles are helping address challenges
to face the delivery of modern, as well as conventional
Over 98 per cent of sprayed
insecticides and 95 per cent of herbicides reach a destination other than their target
species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when
pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas,
potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution and
some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination.
Detection of pesticide molecules in the food items from plant and animal origin
become imperative for safe consumption of food.
Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the
target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the
body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and
organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery
systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: CD134 as target for specific drug delivery to T cells in adjuvant arthritis...
Applications that use HTML-based front ends benefit from
the pervasive distribution of Web browsers for universal, cross-platform
access. Another striking advantage of Web delivery lies in the concept of
thin clients and centralized maintenance, facilitating instantaneous deployment
of software updates at minimal cost. While the popularity of the
Web and its advantages as a client-server platform have led to countless
HTML-based applications, the development of Web applications is still
mostly ad hoc.
The view of investor as customer also receives
some weight from the fact that investors can redeem
their mutual fund shares at net asset value at any
time. This feature makes investing in a mutual fund
unlike owning stock in a traditional company or a
closed-end investment company, where the price at
which an investor can liquidate reflects the market’s
perception of the firm’s management. In that case,
when management is revealed to have taken a “bad”
action, current investors are damaged because they
can resell their shares only at a much lower price.
Effective communication is essential to the success of all the above categories of needs analysis. The
mechanisms established need to ensure proper ‘bottom up’ communication from the local level, as it is
difficult to make the voice of the SME sector heard at the national level – this is particularly so for informal
and micro enterprises. Information and communication technology is now beginning to change this. For a
selection of websites on SMEs and their development see also Annex 9.3.
Information alone is neither knowledge nor learning.
Examples ranged from gory low-budget horror to the sexploitation
ﬁlms of Russ Meyer. Elements of independent ‘exploitation’ strategy
were also embraced by Hollywood in its more mainstream, blockbuster
productions, especially the strategy of combining wide opening release
patterns with saturation advertising, in order to recoup costs quickly.
A number of Hollywood’s biggest-grossing ﬁlms of the 1970s were, in
part, bigger-budget and glossier versions of independent exploitation
fare, especially The Exorcist (1973) and Jaws (1975)....
Experience transmitted by media is sometimes a functional equivalent for
experience gained in the real world. American movies have influenced the
image of legal procedure a great deal – and not just in the United States of
America. An English legal expert told us about seeing a young barrister try to
proceed before an English court in a manner that is possible only in the United
The governor’s office has expressed the view that, since Planned Parenthood affiliates
constitute just 2% of WHP providers, patients would have little difficulty finding alternative
providers. Our analysis indicates that in the markets they serve, Planned Parenthood affiliates
serve half, and sometimes much more than half, of all WHP patients.
The marketing of agricultural commodities in the United States is done by a private enterprise
system. It involves millions of individual decisions (to grow, to buy, to sell, to store, to ship) on
the part of farmers, marketing men, and consumers.
Agricultural marketing is a huge national and international operation. The marketing system is
intricate. It is sensitive to many economic and international developments, which include
strikes, weather, political upheavals and related factors that affect marketing activities.
Switzerland's policy for improving air quality "must be pursued with determination," the
agency added. "In particular, this means using more advanced technologies and
introducing stricter norms for nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates."
The agency said one reason for the smaller than anticipated decrease in polluting
emissions is the projected increase in truck traffic despite the Swiss government's efforts
to encourage trucks crossing through Switzerland to be put on rail cars through the use
of road tolls and quotas on truck traffic.
The dromedary’s water intake is through drinking and the water in the feed. The need for
drinking depends on environmental temperature and humidity and the water content of
the feed. Under range conditions if water is readily available, camels may drink daily or
may not for several days. The main water losses are from evaporative cooling of the skin,
in urine and faeces, and even in these functions the conservation of water can be very
efficient. During exercise physiology studies, obvious sweating was not observed.
Today’s customer-focused, market-driven company cannot afford to miss the fact that many customers prefer environmentally friendly products given a similar cost. Again, it is easy to see that creating and sustaining competitive advantage is still a matter of “better, cheaper, faster.” The Internet has made customers more informed about every aspect of a product, including its potential environmental harms. Companies that can meet these environmental needs will be the winners.
Latinas stand at a unique historical juncture in the reproductive justice movement. A new wave of Latinas are coming of
age, changing the political and social landscape of this country. Without question, Latina civic and political inﬂuence will
grow exponentially over the next decade, making their involvement and leadership in the reproductive rights movement a
prerequisite for success.
The need for reproductive justice for Latinas has never been greater.
Talen and Anselin  evaluate several different accessibility
measures and state that the simplest 'container'
approach (density of services per capita in a given area)
can be misleading if the area is not well defined, i.e., there
are significant flows of people from inside to outside or
from outside the area to use services inside it.
The report summarized in this paper is intended as a review of the transportation sector’s
contribution to local and global air pollution, and the strategic and tactical options available for
combating the problem in an environment of sustainable development and economic growth. The
report examines the origins of, and the damages caused by, air pollution from transport; it
assesses the underlying causes, surveys the principal strategic approaches applied to solving the
problem, and examines the various mechanisms of intervention available.
The potential benefits are large and greatly exceed the expected costs of improved fuel economy. Cutting
global average automotive fuel consumption (L/100 km) by 50% (i.e. doubling MPG) would reduce emis-
sions of CO2 by over 1 gigatonne (Gt) a year by 2025 and over 2 gigatonnes (Gt) by 2050, and result in
savings in annual oil import bills alone worth over USD 300 billion in 2025 and 600 billion in 2050 (based on
an oil price of USD 100/bbl). The Initiative proposes several steps and actions to work towards the 50:50
overall goal and each step will achieve some of...