We are living in interesting times. We are coming out of a recession that
was a once-in-a-generation event; it caused high unemployment, a large
number of home foreclosures, and substantial losses in the stock market and in
retirement savings plans. In addition, there have been unprecedented financial
frauds and natural disasters, causing personal and financial losses to many
individuals. At the same time, a new administration has worked to ease some
of the pain for taxpayers while advancing certain reforms, such as health care
The Reserve Fund was only the second MMMF to break the buck since the SEC adopted rules governing
these funds in 1983, with the first being the Community Bankers US Government Fund in 1994.
funds had losses significant enough to cause them to break the buck and sponsors that were unable to
provide non-contractual support to prevent the losses from being passed on to shareholders. However, it
was the lack of sponsor support for these two funds that was more unusual than the underlying losses
suffered, as credit events have impacted many more than two funds in the...
It is important to avoid confusion when dealing with modified psychic phenomena. A
phantasy-feeling is a modified feeling: it is not to be identified with an imagining (a modified
presentation) of a genuine feeling. A phantasy-judgment is a modified judgment: it is not to be
identified with the imagining of a genuine judgment.
Certainly there is a sense in which what one might call the purely qualitative factor in
phantasy-feelings is the same as that of real feelings. But phantasy-feelings nevertheless
differentiate themselves totally from genuine or serious feelings....
Distribution Shares are identifiable by a "D" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AD), with the exception of Monthly
Distribution Shares which are identifiable by an "M" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AM) and Quarterly Distribution
Shares which are identifiable by a "Q" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AQ).
In derogation from the above table, Monthly and Quarterly Distribution Shares are available only in certain countries, subject to the
relevant regulatory approval, through specific distributors selected by the Distributor.
The main findings of our initial research with regard to the structure of the European microfinance
market are still valid. We are not going to repeat the analysis here but refer the interested reader
to the details of the original paper (see Kraemer-Eis and Conforti, 2009). We can summarise our
findings at the time in the following way:
SMEs constitute the backbone of entrepreneurship in the EU, irrespective of national
boundaries. The majority of these companies are micro-enterprises; in the EU-27, 92% of
the companies have fewer than 10 employees.
A clickbot is a software robot that clicks on ads (issues HTTP
requests for advertiser web pages) to help an attacker conduct
click fraud. Some clickbots can be purchased, while others
are malware that spread as such and are part of larger botnets.
Malware-type clickbots can receive instructions from a botmas-
ter server as to what ads to click, and how often and when to
There are many types of clickbots used on the Internet. Some
are “for-sale” clickbots, while others are malware.
Improving the quality and efficiency of provision and outcomes: Social media offer a
broad variety of versatile tools which address different channels and involve learners more
actively in constructing their own learning process, allowing more effective learning
strategies to be implemented. Research evidence indicates that Learning 2.0 strategies can
furthermore improve individual performance, actively foster the development of transversal
competences, and nurture abilities to flexibly develop skills in a lifelong learning continuum.
Yet – outside the major pension funds and insurance companies – institutional investor allocations to clean
energy projects remain limited, particularly when it comes to the types of direct investment which can help
close the financing gap. Reasons for institutional investor hesitancy include a lack of information and
expertise when it comes to the type of direct infrastructure investment required to finance clean energy
projects, and a potentially unsupportive regulatory backdrop.
heir indicators of low female autonomy include relatively
large age differences between husbands and wives, relatively greater breaks between a woman’s natal
and affinal homes on marriage, and relatively large gender gaps in educational indicators, as well as
strong indicators of son preference.
Much other research confirms their general conclusions.
Yet, despite progress in the identification of problems and the development of
improved methodologies -- and the possibility of regulatory initiatives that feature mandated
environmental accounting -- the field lacks a methodology for evaluating the social and
private benefits of improved environmental accounting. Whether regulators continue to
motivate EA indirectly via outreach to the private sector, or more directly via incentives such
as tax breaks or mandates, private sector resources and regulatory attention should be focused
on initiatives that promise the greatest benefit.
An on-line auction website prevents attackers from guessing the passwords of users by temporarily locking accounts
that receive too many failed attempts (5 tries) in a given amount of time. Once an account is locked, the attacker (or
the user) must wait for a timeout to expire (1 hr) before attempting to login again. Account locking is one of several
techniques used to slow down brute force attacks.
Once logged-in, users are able to browse items being auctioned and view who bid on what. To place a bid, a user is
asked for their password to verify their intent, which...
The high ownership concentration can also serve
as a credible commitment that the controlling owner is willing to build a reputation for
not expropriating minority shareholders (Gomes, 2000). The commitment is credible
because minority shareholders know that if the controlling owner unexpectedly extracts
high levels of private benefits when he/she still holds a substantial amount of shares, they
will discount the stock price accordingly, and the majority owner’s share value will be
The promoter who is able to plan well in advance so that he can define
exactly what he wants and can give his designers adequate time to complete
their work, will usually get best value for money. Acontractor who tenders for
works that have been designed in all essentials and which are not subse-
quently altered, will usually be able to give a good price and fast construction.
Bearing the foregoing in mind, lived experiences have been carefully selected and
synchronised with generic ideas and principles of project management. By starting
with the evolution of project management, the objective was to locate the discipline in
its historical context, thus creating awareness to the project manager that he/she will
be practising within a community of professionals. This is followed by the definition of
the concept of project, which concomitantly elucidates related terms to which the
project manager will find recourse from time-to-time.
The acquisition phase is one of the major changes in infrastructure from the days before big data.
Because big data refers to data streams of higher velocity and higher variety, the infrastructure
required to support the acquisition of big data must deliver low, predictable latency in both
capturing data and in executing short, simple queries; be able to handle very high transaction
volumes, often in a distributed environment; and support flexible, dynamic data structures.
NoSQL databases are frequently used to acquire and store big data.
While at one time it might have been acceptable for companies to capture just the obviously “important” data and throw
the rest away, today leading companies understand that the value of their data goes far deeper. The decision about which
data to keep and which to throw away—that is, which data will prove to be important in the future—is deceptively hard to
Holographic Storage. Stores data on a holographic (3-dimensional) image by
passing light through light-sensitive crystals that retain the light patterns. It
will have multiple thousands of times more memory capacity and no
mechanical movements. Large blocks of data can be written or read with a
single read or write command as opposed to today’s 2-dimensional storages
devices that read and write data one bit at a time.
The lack of embedded security within the IPv4
protocol has led to the many attacks seen today.
Mechanisms to secure IPv4 do exist, but there are
no requirements for their use . IPsec is a specific
mechanism used to secure the protocol. IPsec
secures the packet payloads by means of
cryptography. IPsec provides the services of
confidentiality, integrity, and authentication .
Attackers break into the web application by thinking like a programmer: identifying how the
application is intended to work and determining shortcuts used to build the application. The
hacker then attempts to interact with the application and its surrounding infrastructure in malicious
ways simply by using the web browser or any of a large number of automatic hacker tools, such
as CGI scanners and HTTP proxys.
Further study is needed to disentangle this interaction
and the underlying mechanisms. moreover, the balance of
evidence maintains that outdoor air pollution has a mod-
est effect on the occurrence of anemia in schoolchildren.
Exposure to air pollution may increase the risk of anemia
in children through several mechanisms The biological
mechanisms by which air pollutants may interfere with
the process of red blood cell production are reflected in
the synthesis of hem, the forming of red blood cells, and