Tax breaks

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  • We are living in interesting times. We are coming out of a recession that was a once-in-a-generation event; it caused high unemployment, a large number of home foreclosures, and substantial losses in the stock market and in retirement savings plans. In addition, there have been unprecedented financial frauds and natural disasters, causing personal and financial losses to many individuals. At the same time, a new administration has worked to ease some of the pain for taxpayers while advancing certain reforms, such as health care and “green.

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  • The Reserve Fund was only the second MMMF to break the buck since the SEC adopted rules governing these funds in 1983, with the first being the Community Bankers US Government Fund in 1994. 6 Both funds had losses significant enough to cause them to break the buck and sponsors that were unable to provide non-contractual support to prevent the losses from being passed on to shareholders. However, it was the lack of sponsor support for these two funds that was more unusual than the underlying losses suffered, as credit events have impacted many more than two funds in the...

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  • Distribution Shares are identifiable by a "D" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AD), with the exception of Monthly Distribution Shares which are identifiable by an "M" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AM) and Quarterly Distribution Shares which are identifiable by a "Q" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AQ). In derogation from the above table, Monthly and Quarterly Distribution Shares are available only in certain countries, subject to the relevant regulatory approval, through specific distributors selected by the Distributor.

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  • It is important to avoid confusion when dealing with modified psychic phenomena. A phantasy-feeling is a modified feeling: it is not to be identified with an imagining (a modified presentation) of a genuine feeling. A phantasy-judgment is a modified judgment: it is not to be identified with the imagining of a genuine judgment. Certainly there is a sense in which what one might call the purely qualitative factor in phantasy-feelings is the same as that of real feelings. But phantasy-feelings nevertheless differentiate themselves totally from genuine or serious feelings....

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  • The main findings of our initial research with regard to the structure of the European microfinance market are still valid. We are not going to repeat the analysis here but refer the interested reader to the details of the original paper (see Kraemer-Eis and Conforti, 2009). We can summarise our findings at the time in the following way:  SMEs constitute the backbone of entrepreneurship in the EU, irrespective of national boundaries. The majority of these companies are micro-enterprises; in the EU-27, 92% of the companies have fewer than 10 employees.

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  • A clickbot is a software robot that clicks on ads (issues HTTP requests for advertiser web pages) to help an attacker conduct click fraud. Some clickbots can be purchased, while others are malware that spread as such and are part of larger botnets. Malware-type clickbots can receive instructions from a botmas- ter server as to what ads to click, and how often and when to click them. There are many types of clickbots used on the Internet. Some are “for-sale” clickbots, while others are malware.

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  • Improving the quality and efficiency of provision and outcomes: Social media offer a broad variety of versatile tools which address different channels and involve learners more actively in constructing their own learning process, allowing more effective learning strategies to be implemented. Research evidence indicates that Learning 2.0 strategies can furthermore improve individual performance, actively foster the development of transversal competences, and nurture abilities to flexibly develop skills in a lifelong learning continuum.

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  • Yet – outside the major pension funds and insurance companies – institutional investor allocations to clean energy projects remain limited, particularly when it comes to the types of direct investment which can help close the financing gap. Reasons for institutional investor hesitancy include a lack of information and expertise when it comes to the type of direct infrastructure investment required to finance clean energy projects, and a potentially unsupportive regulatory backdrop.

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  • heir indicators of low female autonomy include relatively large age differences between husbands and wives, relatively greater breaks between a woman’s natal and affinal homes on marriage, and relatively large gender gaps in educational indicators, as well as strong indicators of son preference. 2 Much other research confirms their general conclusions.

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  • Yet, despite progress in the identification of problems and the development of improved methodologies -- and the possibility of regulatory initiatives that feature mandated environmental accounting -- the field lacks a methodology for evaluating the social and private benefits of improved environmental accounting. Whether regulators continue to motivate EA indirectly via outreach to the private sector, or more directly via incentives such as tax breaks or mandates, private sector resources and regulatory attention should be focused on initiatives that promise the greatest benefit.

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  • An on-line auction website prevents attackers from guessing the passwords of users by temporarily locking accounts that receive too many failed attempts (5 tries) in a given amount of time. Once an account is locked, the attacker (or the user) must wait for a timeout to expire (1 hr) before attempting to login again. Account locking is one of several techniques used to slow down brute force attacks. Once logged-in, users are able to browse items being auctioned and view who bid on what. To place a bid, a user is asked for their password to verify their intent, which...

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  • The high ownership concentration can also serve as a credible commitment that the controlling owner is willing to build a reputation for not expropriating minority shareholders (Gomes, 2000). The commitment is credible because minority shareholders know that if the controlling owner unexpectedly extracts high levels of private benefits when he/she still holds a substantial amount of shares, they will discount the stock price accordingly, and the majority owner’s share value will be reduced.

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  • The promoter who is able to plan well in advance so that he can define exactly what he wants and can give his designers adequate time to complete their work, will usually get best value for money. Acontractor who tenders for works that have been designed in all essentials and which are not subse- quently altered, will usually be able to give a good price and fast construction.

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  • Bearing the foregoing in mind, lived experiences have been carefully selected and synchronised with generic ideas and principles of project management. By starting with the evolution of project management, the objective was to locate the discipline in its historical context, thus creating awareness to the project manager that he/she will be practising within a community of professionals. This is followed by the definition of the concept of project, which concomitantly elucidates related terms to which the project manager will find recourse from time-to-time.

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  • The acquisition phase is one of the major changes in infrastructure from the days before big data. Because big data refers to data streams of higher velocity and higher variety, the infrastructure required to support the acquisition of big data must deliver low, predictable latency in both capturing data and in executing short, simple queries; be able to handle very high transaction volumes, often in a distributed environment; and support flexible, dynamic data structures. NoSQL databases are frequently used to acquire and store big data.

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  • While at one time it might have been acceptable for companies to capture just the obviously “important” data and throw the rest away, today leading companies understand that the value of their data goes far deeper. The decision about which data to keep and which to throw away—that is, which data will prove to be important in the future—is deceptively hard to make.

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  • Holographic Storage. Stores data on a holographic (3-dimensional) image by passing light through light-sensitive crystals that retain the light patterns. It will have multiple thousands of times more memory capacity and no mechanical movements. Large blocks of data can be written or read with a single read or write command as opposed to today’s 2-dimensional storages devices that read and write data one bit at a time.

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  •   The  lack  of  embedded  security  within  the  IPv4  protocol  has  led  to  the many  attacks  seen  today.  Mechanisms  to secure  IPv4 do exist, but  there are  no requirements for their use [6]. IPsec is a specific  mechanism  used  to  secure  the  protocol.  IPsec  secures  the  packet  payloads  by  means  of  cryptography.  IPsec  provides  the  services  of  confidentiality,  integrity,  and  authentication  [6].

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  • Attackers break into the web application by thinking like a programmer: identifying how the application is intended to work and determining shortcuts used to build the application. The hacker then attempts to interact with the application and its surrounding infrastructure in malicious ways simply by using the web browser or any of a large number of automatic hacker tools, such as CGI scanners and HTTP proxys.

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  • Further study is needed to disentangle this interaction and the underlying mechanisms. moreover, the balance of evidence maintains that outdoor air pollution has a mod- est effect on the occurrence of anemia in schoolchildren. Exposure to air pollution may increase the risk of anemia in children through several mechanisms The biological mechanisms by which air pollutants may interfere with the process of red blood cell production are reflected in the synthesis of hem, the forming of red blood cells, and its life-expectancy.

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