Xem 1-20 trên 157 kết quả Tax policy
  • This unusual and difficult balance is on full display in Kelman's ambitious attempt to address the most vexing problem of the social reform agenda: How should the costs of social programs be borne? Based on his well-received Cooley Lectures at the University of Michigan, Kelman's book seeks the guiding constitutional and policy considerations that should constrain government action. The topics covered include such front-burner issues as the revitalization of takings doctrine and the debates over the role of tax subsidies for desired private conduct.

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  • This report investigates the income and equity effects of macroeconomic policy reforms in Zimbabwe, emphasizing linkages between macroeconomic policies and agricultural performance and agriculture's influence on aggregate income and its distribution.Analyses focus on reform of the foreign trade regime, public expenditure, and tax policy, along with the potential benefits of combining these structural changes with various land reform scenarios.

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain the rudiments of how taxes work, describe the concepts of horizontal and vertical equity and how they apply to the issue of taxation, summarize the trade-off that exists between simplicity and horizontal equity when people are making tax policy, describe how taxes can alter the incentives of people to work and save, list examples of where taxes are used to motivate socially desirable outcomes.

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  • In the surnmero f 1997, whent he Federal ReserveB anko f Bostons elected the topic for its fortysecond annual economicc onference, manyp undits werea sking: "Is the business cycle dead, or at least permanently dampened?"B y the time the Bank’s conference convenedi n June 1998, the same pundits queried: "What caused the massive recessions in Asia?" and "Can the United States remain ’an oasis of prosperity,’ as Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan termed it, while economiesw orldwidea re under siege from financial crises?" Howq uickly things change! BeyondS hocks:W hatC ausesB usiness Cycles ? t...

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  • What constitutes a just tax system, and what are its moral foundations? Should a society's tax regime be designed to achieve a just distribution of wealth among its citizens, or should such a regime be designed to promote economic growth, rising standards of living, and increasing levels of employment? Are these two goals compatible or incompatible? Why should justice not require, or at least lead to, an increase in general prosperity? The essays in this volume examine the history of tax policies and the normative principles that have informed the selection of various types of taxes and tax...

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  • Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective The New Fiscal Sociology: Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective demon- strates that the study of taxation can illuminate fundamental dynamics of modern societies. The fourteen chapters in this collection offer a state-of-the-art survey of the new fiscal sociology that is emerging at the intersection of sociology, history, political science, and law. The contributors include some of the foremost comparative historical scholars in these disciplines and others.

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  • This is a political history of Labour's use of the tax system from 1906 to 1979: an epilogue brings the story up to the present, surveying New Labour's tax policies and dilemmas. Richard Whiting's broad-ranging, lucid and readable study examines how Labour used tax to further its political aims of funding welfare, managing the economy, promoting fairness and achieving greater equality.

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  • While many HIV-infected individuals do not wish to have children, others desire children despite their infected status. The desire and intent to have children among HIV-infected individuals may increase because of improved quality of life and survival following commencement of anti-retroviral treatment. In developing countries such as South Africa, where the largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide reside, specific government reproductive health policy and service provision for HIV-infected individuals is underdeveloped.

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  • This is a political history of Labour's use of the tax system from 1906 to 1979: an epilogue brings the story up to the present, surveying New Labour's tax policies and dilemmas. Richard Whiting's broad-ranging, lucid and readable study examines how Labour used tax to further its political aims of funding welfare, managing the economy, promoting fairness and achieving greater equality.

    pdf307p layon_5 28-03-2013 30 7   Download

  • A genuine EMU needs a comprehensive approach to tackle the vicious circle of excessive private sector indebtedness, unsustainable sovereign debt and banking sector weakness. The EU lacks a global framework which fills in the gaps in a fully integrated financial services policy, with a single supervisory mechanism for banks and a single rule book to govern all financial institutions. It also needs to complete and implement the more effective mechanisms put forward to prevent and correct unsustainable fiscal policies and economic imbalances.

    pdf6p lenh_hoi_xung 01-03-2013 21 5   Download

  • Tham khảo sách 'mental health policy and service guidance package: mental health financing', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • To boost their domestic saving rate, many OECD countries have introduced savings accounts that offer tax advantages, called tax-preferred savings accounts. This report describes and analyses various tax-preferred savings accounts, excluding pension-related accounts, in a cross-section of 11 OECD countries. Based on a comparison of results, the report then answers the following questions: (1) which......

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  • This paper examines the pollution control policies applied in China’s paper industry during the period of economic reform from 1982 to 1992. The paper industry is the source of ten percent of China’s industrial wastewater emissions and one fourth of its chemical oxygen demand. It is the largest source of rural environmental pollution. The very small size of china’s mills is comparable to that of papermills in many developing countries and this small size itself creates an interesting problem.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'mental health policy and service guidance package: organization of services for mental health', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Over the years, the EITC has played different tax policy, labor market, and antipoverty roles. In section 3.2, we review the political history of the EITC, its rules, and its goals, and we provide a broad set of program sta- tistics that summarize its growth and coverage. Various goals of the pro- gram occasionally come into conflict. For example, when the EITC was in- creased as part of the 1993 budget bill, it was singled out as an important antipoverty program that has positive (relative to alternatives) labor mar- ket incentives.

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  • The Overseas Development Institute has also looked at such risk mitigation mechanisms. 23 In addition to the above, they highlight the use of pledge funds, whereby by public finance sponsors provide a small amount of equity to encourage larger pledges from private investors 24 .

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  • In this chapter you will consider whether policymakers should try to stabilize the economy, consider whether monetary policy should be made by rule rather than by discretion, consider whether the central bank should aim for zero inflation, consider whether fiscal policymakers should reduce the government debt, consider whether the tax laws should be reformed to encourage saving.

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  • In this chapter, you will learn to: Can Congress fight a recession without taking any action? Why did Ronald Reagan think the federal government could increase tax revenues by cutting taxes? Is an increase in government spending or a tax cut of equal amount the greater stimulus to economic growth?,...

    ppt76p allbymyself_06 26-01-2016 10 1   Download

  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the main categories of government spending and the main sources of government revenue; summarize the different philosophies regarding the distribution of a nation's tax burden; explain the principles relating to tax shifting, tax incidence, and the efficiency losses caused by taxes; demonstrate how the distribution of income between rich and poor is affected by government taxes, transfers, and spending.

    ppt14p tangtuy05 23-03-2016 3 1   Download

  • This chapter explores the tools of government stabilization policy in terms of the aggregate demand-aggregate (AD-AS) model. Next, the chapter examines fiscal policy measures that automatically adjust government expenditures and tax revenues when the economy moves through the business cycle phases. The recent use and resurgence of fiscal policy as a tool are discussed, as are problems, criticism, and complications of fiscal policy.

    ppt18p tangtuy05 23-03-2016 5 1   Download

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