Technical potential and cost

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  • The automobile has come to symbolize the essence of a modern industrial society. Perhaps more than any other single icon, it is associated with a desire for independence and freedom of movement; it is an expression of economic status and personal style. Automobile production is also critically important to the major industrial economies of the world. In the United States, for instance, about 5 percent of all workers are employed directly (including fuel production and distribution) by the auto industry.

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  • Some energy crop species are rich in toxic chemicals (such as allelochemicals in Jatropha). These toxic oilseed crops can enter the food chain inmanyways. Research studies on the toxicity have highlighted the potential negative impacts on the ecosystem, including other plantsthatmightgrowinthevicinity. Pesticidesimpacttheenvironmentatseverallevels(fromproductionoffertilizerstocultivation ofenergycrops).Studiesshow that theenvironmental footprint iscomparatively largerduring the cultivation process.

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  • Wind power generation is considered as the most economic viable alternative within the portfolio of renewable energy resources. Among their advantages are the large number of potential sites for erection and the rapidly evolving technology with many suppliers offering from the individual turbine set to even turnkey projects. The disadvantages of wind energy include high capital costs and lack of controllability on the discontinuous or intermittent resource.

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  • Over the past 15 years, evidence has accumulated that the nation's ground water resource, which supplies more than 50 percent of the population's drinking water, is threatened not only by excessive overdrafts but also by contamination caused by past and present industrial, agricultural, and commercial activities. In the United States, it is estimated that more than 300,000 sites may have contaminated soil or ground water requiring some form of remediation (see Table 1-2 in Chapter 1).

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  • The impacts of climate change ranging from sea level rise, melting ice caps and glaciers, severe weather events, drought, flooding, warming, subtle changes in ecosystems – will impinge on every aspect of society and economic life. The costs of inaction will more than outweigh the costs of action. There is only a narrow window of opportunity to redress the situation.

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  • For countries with a tradition of reliance on laws and regulations (rather than standards) for the fixing of accounting and auditing requirements, specific issues arise. Rather than giving authority to a continuing process of standard-setting, new statutory measures are required whenever a new international standard is enacted, or an existing international standard is amended. Typically, such changes must be gazetted in the official language of the country.

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  • Licensed spectrum wireless service providers can experience difficulties deploying wireless service through traditional base stations for a variety of reasons. These include zoning restrictions, high cost of site acquisition, limited revenue-generating potential to justify deployment of a dedicated site, and technical reasons such as extended feeder cable runs.

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  • This forecast is designed to support policy-makers through providing a view on future vehicle numbers, ages, types and the potential implications for costs going forward. This work will also help to guide suppliers and Government, including the Cabinet Office and the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills, regarding the size and nature of the ‘pipeline’ of future rolling stock construction, potential for life extension, and requirements for future re-engineering to meet technical and customer requirements. ...

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