Since the 1945 publication of Vannevar Bush’s Science—The Endless
Frontier, the federal government has played the predominant role
in supporting research and development (R&D) and in establishing
public policies that affect science and technology (S&T) in the United
States. That role remains vitally important today. Almost every major
policy issue is influenced by scientific and technological information and
expertise. There remains a clear and ongoing mandate for a cohesive set
of federal policy and programs that both sustain R&D and promote the
application of new knowledge....
From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and
outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun’s influence wanes, advances during the past decade in
space physics and solar physics—the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics—have yielded
spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National
Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second
NRC decadal survey in heliophysics.
The Board on International Comparative Studies in Education
(BICSE) was established by the National Research Council (NRC) in
1988 at the request of the U.S. Department of Education’s National
Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the U.S. National Science
Foundation (NSF). Under its initial mandate, the board monitored
U.S. participation in large-scale international comparative studies.
his report and a companion website (www.nae.edu/
techlit) are the final products of a two-year study by the
Committee on Technological Literacy, a group of experts
on diverse subjects under the auspices of the National Academy of
Engineering (NAE) and the Center for Education, part of the National
Research Council (NRC). The committee’s charge was to begin to
develop among relevant communities a common understanding of what
technological literacy is, how important it is to the nation, and how it can
This report is the final product of a two-year study by the
Committee on Assessing Technological Literacy, a group
of experts on diverse subjects under the auspices of the
National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Board on Testing and
Assessment at the Center for Education, part of the National Research
Council (NRC). The committee’s charge was to determine the most
viable approach or approaches to assessing technological literacy in U.S.
K–12 students, K–12 teachers, and out-of-school adults.
Today's defense systems incorporate an increasing number of electronic components, intended to
enable these systems to be more accurate, more sophisticated, and more effective. Advances in printed
circuits and associated interconnection—an integral technology—have enabled this trend, and these
advances are expected to continue to enable future combat systems.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) asked the National
Research Council’s (NRC) Board on Science, Technology, and Economic
Policy (STEP) to review the operations of the Advanced Technology Program
(ATP) to ascertain if the program is achieving its legislated objectives and to
recommend potential improvements in its operations.
Technological innovations are key causal agents of surprise and disruption. These innovations, and the disruption
they produce, have the potential to affect people and societies and therefore government policy, especially
policy related to national security. Because the innovations can come from many sectors, they are difficult to
predict and prepare for. The purpose of predicting technology is to minimize or eliminate this surprise.
The Committee to Review Assembled Chemical
Weapons Alternatives Program Detonation Technologies
was appointed by the National Research Council
(NRC) in response to a request by the U.S. Army’s
Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons
Three types of detonation technologies available
from technology vendors and the Army’s explosive
destruction system (EDS), collectively known as
explosive destruction technologies (EDTs), are being
considered for use at the Blue Grass Army Depot in
Richmond, Kentucky, and the Pueblo Chemical Depot
in Pueblo, Colorado....
he National Intelligence Council (NIC) sponsored this study by the RAND Corporation to
inform the NIC’s 2020 project1 and help provide US policymakers with a view of how world
developments could evolve, identifying opportunities and potentially negative developments
that might warrant policy action. From June 2004 through August 2005, RAND undertook
the challenging task of identifying technologies and applications that have the potential for
signiﬁcant and dominant global impacts by 2020. ...
The author gratefully acknowledges the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial
Technology, Steam System BestPractices Program for sponsoring the development of this guide. Special
thanks are extended to Fred Hart and Bob Gemmer of DOE for their support and guidance.
Statistical models are empirical. Although they are derived from observations, the
relationship described must have a basis in our underlying understanding of processes
if we are to have faith in the predictive capabilities of the model (National
Research Council 2000).
Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy
makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence
and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors,
particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/
National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council
held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.
Publication of this book is a milestone for the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative
Council. It demonstrates the Council's unique capacity to bring together water and
sanitation professionals from industrialised and developing countries to formulate
practical guidance on a key issue of the day.
Industrialised countries have extensive experience of the problems caused by water
pollution and the strategies and technologies available to control it.
“Creating Markets for Renewable Energy Technologies EU RES Technology Marketing Campaign“.
Bioethanol Production and Use.
Supported by the European Commission - FP6.
Brochure produced as part of the Project: RESTMAC Project Coordinator
EREC - European Renewable Energy Council.
Established in 1995, the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) is a state-led, national
coalition of personnel from the environmental regulatory agencies of some 40 states and the District
of Columbia; three federal agencies; tribes; and public and industry stakeholders. The organization is
devoted to reducing barriers to, and speeding interstate deployment of, better, more cost-effective,
innovative environmental techniques.
Representing nearly fifty years of cooperation between Wiley and the Structural Stability Research Council, the Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures is often described as an invaluable reference for practicing structural engineers and researchers. For generations of engineers and architects, the Guide has served as the definitive work on designing steel and aluminum structures for stability.
The BAT (Best Available Techniques) Reference Document (BREF) entitled “Best Available
Techniques for the Manufacture of Organic Fine Chemicals” (OFC) reflects an information
exchange carried out under Article 16(2) of Council Directive 96/61/EC (IPPC Directive). This
executive summary describes the main findings, a summary of the principal BAT conclusions
and the associated consumption and emission levels. It should be read in conjunction with the
preface, which explains this document’s objectives; how it is intended to be used and legal
Digital technologies have been engines of cultural innovation, from the virtualization of group networks and social identities to the digital convergence of textural and audio-visual media. User-centered content production, from Wikipedia to YouTube to Open Source, has become the emblem of this transformation, but the changes run deeper and wider than these novel organizational forms.
The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in
Solar and Space Physics is the product of an 18-month effort that began in
December 2000, when the National Research Council (NRC) approved a
study to assess the current status and future directions of U.S. ground- and
space-based programs in solar and space physics research. The NRC’s
Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized
the study, which was carried out by five ad hoc study panels and the
15-member Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, chaired by Louis J.