The Data-Link layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data in and out across a physical link in a network. The Data-Link layer is layer 2 in the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model for a set of telecommunication protocols.The Data-Link layer ensures that an initial connection has been set up, divides output data into data frames, and handles the acknowledgements from a receiver that the data arrived successfully. It also ensures that incoming data has been received successfully by analyzing bit patterns at special places in the frames....
Mobile telecommunications emerged as a technological marvel allowing for access to
personal and other services, devices, computation and communication, in any place and
at any time through effortless plug and play. This brilliant idea became possible as the
result of new technologies developed in the areas of computers and communications that
were made available and accessible to the user.
Mô hình tham chiếu OSI Quá trình xử lý và vận chuyển một gói dữ liệu Mô hình tham chiếu TCP/IP
2 Mô hình OSI
Khái niệm giao thức mạng Giới thiệu các tổ chức định chuẩn Giới thiệu mô hình OSI Chức năng của từng lớp trong mô hình OSI
3 Giao thức (protocol)
Giao thức (protocol) là các qui tắc giao tiếp giữa hai hệ thống
A serial port is a computer interface that transmits data one bit at a time. In
common use, the term “serial port” refers to ports that use a particular asynchronous
protocol. These ports include the RS-232 ports on PCs and many
serial ports in embedded systems. Most serial ports are bidirectional: they can
both send and receive data. Transmitting one bit at a time might seem inefficient
but has advantages, including the ability to use inexpensive cables and
SIP’s popularity has grown enormously over the past few years. A big boost in support came in November
2000, with the acceptance of SIP by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). 3GPP is composed of standards
organizations in China, Europe, Japan, North America and South Korea, and is dedicated to the proliferation
of a third-generation wireless global standard. More specifically, this organization focuses on the development
of standards for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).
We have witnessed significant advances in multimedia research and applications due to
the rapid increase in digital media, computing power, communication speed, and storage
capacity. Multimedia has become an indispensable aspect in contemporary daily life,
and we can feel its presence in many applications ranging from online multimedia search,
Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), and mobile multimedia, to social media.
During the last decades, the usage of telecommunications systems has increased rapidly.
Because of a permanent necessity for new telecommunications services and additional
transmission capacities, there is also a need for the development of new telecommunications
networks and transmission technologies. From the economic point of view,
telecommunications promise big revenues, motivating large investments in this area.
Validation of Communications Systems with SDL provides a clear practical guide to validating, by simulation, a telecom system modelled in SDL. SDL, the Specification and Description Language standardised by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), is used to specify and develop complex systems such as GSM, GPRS, UMTS, IEEE 802.11 or Hiperlan. Since the downturn in the telecom industry, validating a system before its implementation has become mandatory to reduce costs.
Specifies the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional requirements for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. Examples of physical link characteristics include voltage levels, data rates, maximum transmission distances, and physical connectors.
For the ef®cient and successful operation of a modern communication network such as a GSM PLMN, a comprehensive Network Management (NM) is mandatory. Network management encompasses all functions and activities which control, monitor, and record usage and resource performance of a telecommunication network, with the objective of offering the subscribers telecommunication services of a certain objective level of quality. Various aspects of quality are either de®ned and prescribed in standards or laid down in operator-speci®c de®nitions.
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Chapter 1. The Evolution of Signaling This chapter is intended to provide a sound introduction to the world of telecommunications signaling. It is particularly written for those readers who have little or no signaling knowledge.
Summary SS7 is a data communications network that acts as the nervous system to bring the components of telecommunications networks to life. It acts as a platform for various services described throughout this book.
Summary The Intelligent Network is a continually-evolving model for distributed service processing in the telecommunications network. The models that represent call processing provide a generic interface for distributed control
Regional Standards North America, Europe, and Japan play a major role in the ITU-T and also set their own regional standards based on the ITU-T recommendations. ETSI ETSI is a nonprofit organization responsible for setting standards for telecommunications systems in Europe. ETSI was set up by the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). ETSI is an open forum that unites 728 members from 51 countries, representing administrations, network operators, manufacturer
để phân phối các dịch vụ đa phương tiện tương tác. Truy cập băng thông rộng không dây được dựa trên khái niệm hai Layer (TLN) mạng, trong đó thuê bao được chia thành các nhóm microcells, được nhúng vào một macrocell. Phạm vi bảo hiểm microcells sử dụng lặp địa phương hoạt động ở 5,8 GHz
Lớp vận tải bao gồm các cao cấp của LM và chồng lên Host Controller Interface (HCI). Lớp giao thông vận tải chịu trách nhiệm về độ tin cậy và ghép kênh truyền dữ liệu trên mạng đến cấp độ được cung cấp bởi ứng dụng. Lớp phiên bao gồm điều khiển liên kết logic và thích ứng
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