Temperature decreases

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  • Simulated Annealing is a probabilistic meta-heuristic that is based on statistical mechanics: while at high temperatures molecules in a liquid move freely, the slow reduction of temperature decreases the thermal mobility of the molecules. The final state forms a pure crystal which also corresponds to a state of minimum energy. We encourage readers to explore SA in their work, mainly because it is simple and because it can yield very good results.

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  • Amidst the many advantages of gas turbine (GT) combined cycles (CC) popular today from various standpoints (lower investment than for new greenfield plants, reduced environmental impact, and faster installation and startup), one drawback is that the achievable output decreases significantly as the ambient inlet air temperature increases. The lower density of warm air reduces mass flow through the GT. And, unfortunately, hot weather typically corresponds to peak power loads in many areas. So the need to meet peak-load and power-sales contract requirements causes many ...

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  • Concept of hybrid molecules: When double strand DNA is steamed to a temperature exceed the melting temperature (Tm), it will separate into 2 single strands DNA due to breaks of H bonds. If the reaction temperature is then decreased slowly plus other appropriate experimental conditions, these ssDNA will pair again. This phenomenon is called the hybridization of molecules. Characteristic of the hybrid molecules: Specificity, the re-pairing occurs only between two complementary sequences.

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  • Understanding the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is of critical importance to ongoing and future efforts to decrease the impact of FMD in endemic regions and prevent incursions to disease-free territories. The importance of the early phase of virus- host interaction lies in two key facts: 1) it is the early events which determine if a susceptible host becomes infected and 2) successful abrogation of the early events is the logical goal of vaccines and biotherapeutic countermeasures.

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  • As output decreased the unemployment rate increased, rising from 4.6% in 2007 to a peak of 10.1% in October 2009, and remaining only slightly below that high into 2011. The U.S. unemployment rate has not been at this level since 1982, when in the aftermath of the 1981 recession it reached 10.8%, the highest rate of the post-war period. (During the Great Depression the unemployment rate reached 25%.) This rise in the unemployment rate translates to about 7 million persons put out of work during the recession. Another 8.

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  • Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder that decreases life expectancy by 25 to 30 years and affects approximately 80,000 Americans. Individuals are diagnosed with sickle cell disease if they have one of several genotypes that result in at least half of their hemoglobin being hemoglobin S (Hb S). Sickle cell anemia refers specifically to the condition associated with homozygosity for the Hb S mutation (Hb SS). Several other hemoglobin mutations, when occurring with an Hb S mutation, cause a similar but often milder disease than sickle cell anemia.

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  • The hypothesis is tested that Jun–Fos activator protein-1 coiled coil inter-actions are dominated during late folding events by the formation of intri-cate intermolecular electrostatic contacts. A previously derived cJun–FosW was used as a template as it is a highly stable relative of the wild-type cJun–cFos coiled coil protein (thermal melting temperature = 63C versus 16C), allowing kinetic folding data to be readily extracted.

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  • In contrast to our previous study (Barth & Marx, 2008) dealing with a currently decreasing research field (high-temperature superconductors) we analyzed here a topic which has raised a strongly increasing interest among researchers: research activities around carbon nanotubes (CNTs or NTs). Carbon nanotubes (often named only nanotubes) are graphite sheets rolled up into cylinders with diameters of the order of a few nanometers and up to some millimeters in length with at least one end capped with a hemisphere of the fullerene structure....

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  • The temperature sensor for an electronic controller may be a length of wire or a thin metallic film (called a resistance temperature device or RTD) or a thermistor. Both types of resistance elements change electrical resistance as temperature changes. The wire increases resistance as its temperature increases. The thermistor is a semiconductor that decreases in resistance as the temperature increases. Because electronic sensors use extremely low mass, they respond to temperature changes more rapidly than bimetal or sealed-fluid sensors. The resistance change is detected by a bridge circuit.

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  • A new technology for production of 4BS pastes for the positive (lead dioxide) plates of lead-acid batteries has been developed based on an Eirich Evactherm1 mixer. The basic principle of this new technology is that 4BS crystals with dimensions between 20 and 25 mm are formed ®rst from a semi-suspension at a temperature higher than 908C and then the excess water is removed from the semi-suspension under vacuum until the desired paste density is obtained. During the vacuum treatment the temperature of the paste decreases and small 4BS and PbO crystals are formed. ...

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  • The most discussed effect of global warming is the increase of temperatures, although this increase will not be homogeneous through the seasons, with the winters expected to warm up significantly more than the summers. In addition, changes in precipitation are also expected that could lead to increase or decrease of rainfall, snowfall and other water-related events. Finally, a change in the frequency and intensity of storm events could be possible, although this is probably the most uncertain of the effects of global warming.

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  • Since the temperature and density of air decreases with altitude, so does the speed of sound, hence a given true velocity results in a higher MACH number at higher altitudes.

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  • Today’s service providers are under tremendous pressure to ensure their networks are profitable. When it comes to fiber-to-the premise (FTTP) architectures, ADC has done its homework. ADC has helped providers maximize profits while minimizing expenses, and offers several white papers which explain considerations and techniques that can be applied to particular sections of the FTTP network to increase performance, flexibility, and profitability by decreasing capital expenses (CAPEX) and operating expenses (OPEX).

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  • Climate change can also be expected to have serious consequences on water resources. Melting glaciers, higher intensity and more variable rainfall events, and increasing temperatures will contribute to increased inland flooding, water scarcity and decreasing water quality. Overall, the greatest human requirement for freshwater resources is for crop irrigation, particularly for farming in arid regions and in the great paddy fields of Asia.

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  • Minimum temperatures in winter are very likely to increase more than the mean winter temperature in northern Europe (Hanssen-Bauer et al., 2005), while maximum temperatures in summer are likely to increase more than the mean summer temperature in southern and central Europe (Tebaldi et al., 2006). Concerning precipitation, the annual sum is very likely to increase in northern Europe (Hanssen-Bauer et al., 2005) and decrease in the Mediterranean area.

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  • Variation in precipitation will also affect the salinity levels of surface water. Increased rainfall or runoff will likely reduce salinity levels, especially in winter, while lower precipitation levels and higher temperatures during summertime could increase salinity levels (Jacobs et al. 2001). As a result, semi- arid regions that suffer from decreasing runoff will be greatly impacted by salinization (Jacobs et al. 2001).

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  • Regioregular polythiophene-based conductive copolymers with highly crystalline nanostructures are shown to hold considerable promise as the active layer in volatile organic compound (VOC) chemresistor sensors. While the regioregular polythiophene polymer chain provides a charge conduction path, its chemical sensing selectivity and sensitivity can be altered either by incorporating a second polymer to form a block copolymer or by making a random copolymer of polythiophene with different alkyl side chains.

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  • Another alternative often considered for power augmentation and/or to simply minimize the impact of ambient temperature effects is the use of inlet air chillers. Depending upon power plant economics—in conjunction with ambient temperature and plant load profiles—chillers can afford substantial economic value. This alternative cools the incoming air, thus increasing the output relative to the gain available with an evaporative cooler.

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  • Nanometer perovskite-type complex oxide La1-xSrxMnO3 was prepared by sol-gel method using citrate ion as ligand. The formation process of La1-xSrxMnO3was investigated by DTA, TGA, DTGA, TEM and XRD. The BET surface area of the obtained perovskite was also determined. The results show that the nanocrystalline structure maybe created since the temperature 260o C. When the calcining temperature increases from 260o C to 600o C so the particle size raises from 10 nm to 40 nm and BET surface area decreases from 13,467 m2 /g to 6,273 m2 /g.

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  • Influences of electrodeposition parameters and anealling temperature on magnetic properties of the electrodeposited thin film CoNi were investigated. Results show that coercive force Hc attains the maximum value when the concentration ratio of metals in the electrolyte is [Co2+] : [Ni 2+] = 0.2 : 0.8 ÷ 0.4 : 0.6. The presence of Sacharin in electrolyte enhances the coercive force (Hc) of the electrodeposited layer. The increase of layer thickness results the decrease of Hc.

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