Temperature optimization

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  • Problem statement: Dilute sulphuric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were used for sugar extraction. Xylose and glucose sugars were obtained from corn cobs. Approach: Acid hydrolysis of corn cobs gave higher amount of sugars than enzymatic hydrolysis. Results: The results showed that optimal temperature and time for sugar fermentation were approximately 25°C and 50 h by two yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and P. Stipitis) respectively.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'optimization methods in finance', kinh doanh - tiếp thị, quản trị kinh doanh phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a íundamental tool in molecular research and clinical testing. The origins of PCR and its early evolution are described; including adaptation to RNA; thermostable polymerases, automation, improvements in speciíkity and rapid temperature cycling.

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  • Resistance towards the responsible pathogens are also seen in developed countries. The situation has worsened often due to limited resource available to investigate and provide reliable susceptibility data on which rational treatments can be based as well as means to optimize the use of antimicrobial agents. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant isolates in tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections and diarrhea, often referred to as diseases of poverty, has had its greatest toll in developing countries.

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  • Although health economics provides a useful starting point for such analyses of coverage, the ultimate effect of a mandate is not easily reduced to, and in fact could differ from, the predicted effect of treating penalty amounts as dollar-for-dollar equivalents to subsidies. People can respond to penalties and subsidies differently and in ways that are not considered in standard health economics models.

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  • The emission factors of the 14 most abundant VOCs on sequential cold weather sampling dates (January 17 and March 12, 2003) are compared in Table 4. Indoor and outdoor temperatures and percent RHs were approximately equivalent between these dates (Table 1). However, the January air change rate was 0.58 h-1 versus 0.31 h-1 in March, likely due to the difference in wind conditions. Within both the aldehyde and the terpene hydrocarbon chemical classes, the ratio of the emission factor at the lower air change rate to the emission factor at the higher air change rate was near...

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  • In the design of an integrated circuit, the designer is faced with the challenge of having circuits and systems function over multiple operating points. From the point of view of performance, the circuit must meet its speed requirements over a range of voltages and temperatures that reflect the environment that the circuit is operating in. Also while the performance requirement must be met at a set of worst-case conditions for speed, the power requirement must be simultaneously met at another set of worstcase conditions for power....

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  • During nuclear fusion, the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature causes hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the atoms) to fuse to become one helium atom. But the helium atom contains less mass than the four hydrogen atoms that fused. Some matter is lost during nuclear fusion. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy. It takes millions of years for the energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the solar surface, and then just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles...

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  • To solve these problems, the SEQ and PREDATOR systems introduce a spe- cial sublanguage, called SEQUINfor queries on sequences [Seshadri et al. 1994, 1995; Seshadri 1998]. SEQUIN works on sequences in combination with SQL working on standard relations; query blocks from the two languages can be nested inside each other, with the help of directives for converting data be- tween the blocks.

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  • Overall, our proposed framework is quite general and is applicable to investment decisions in real time. For one, moments used to form optimal portfolios obey closed-form expressions. This facilitates the implementation of formal trading strategies across a large universe of mutual funds.

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  • The research of optimal condition for etching silicon in TMAH solution with controlled etch rate and low surface roughness is the purpose of this study. The investigation on the influence of temperature, agitation, size of etch-window, etch time on etch rate and the surface roughness were carried out. With the TMAH concentration of 20% in weight, the optimal etching conditions were as follows: temperature of about 80 – 90 oC, agitation of 150 - 200 rpm. The etch rate is controlled in range of 0.49 – 0.72 µm/min. ...

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  • Freeform fabrication technology does not require pre-formed mandrels or tooling; instead, it builds physical objects directly from computer graphical data. This type of technology is also known as layer manufacturing, since it constructs the three- dimensional object layer by layer (Jacobs, 1992; Beaman et al., 1997). The technology has proved that it can help to rapidly provide feedback on design concepts, discover inconsistencies in the design, modify the design, and eliminate inconsistency before fabricating the design.

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  • Plants are continuously affected by a variety of environmental factors. Whereas biotic environmental factors are other organisms such as symbionts, parasites, pathogens, herbivores, and competitors, abiotic factors include parameters and resources which determine plant growth like temperature, relative humidity, light, availability of water, mineral nutrients, and CO 2 , as well as wind, ionizing radiation, or pollutants (Schulze et al. 2002 ) . The effect each abiotic factor has on the plant depends on its quantity or intensity.

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  • Oilless Guide Elements General Description Oilless Guide Elements with embedded solid lubricants are used in applications of linear or rotary motion in toolmaking, general machine construction and similar engineering uses. The structure of the base material provides closely spaced deposits of solid lubricant – properties and specifications as per table below. The elements satisfy highest demands in terms of load bearing capacity at low sliding speeds, within an extensive temperature band.

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  • International Rectifier's IRAMS10UP60A is an Integrated Power Module developed and optimized for electronic motor control in appliance applications such as washing machines and refrigerators. Plug N Drive technology offers an extremely compact, high performance AC motor-driver in a single isolated package for a very simple design. A built-in temperature monitor and over-temperature/over-current protection, along with the short-circuit rated IGBTs and integrated under-voltage lockout function, deliver high level of protection and fail-safe operation.

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  • The possibility of producing ethanol from biomass such as maize cobs and groundnut shells was investigated. Different concentrations of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were used to determine the acid concentration that could produce an optimal yield of glucose. The results revealed that 4.5M H2SO4 produced the optimal yield of glucose and ethanol. This acid concentration was then used for the study of temperature effects on yield of glucose. The results indicated that glucose yield increased with temperature within the experimental set-up....

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  • Over the past decade, our understanding of plant adaptation to environmental stress, including both constitutive and inducible determinants, has grown con- siderably. This book focuses on stress caused by the inanimate components of the environment associated with climatic, edaphic and physiographic factors that substantially limit plant growth and survival. Categorically these are abiotic stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor soil nutrition.

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  • This book covers a number of topics in heat and mass transfer processes for a variety of industrial applications. The research papers provide information and guidelines in terms of theory, mathematical modeling and experimental findings in many research areas relevant to the design of industrial processes and equipment. The equipment includes air heaters, cooling towers, chemical system vaporization, high temperature polymerization and hydrogen production by steam reforming.

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  • The casting process represents the shortest route from the basic material, the alloyed melt, to the casting ready to be installed with optimized multiple functions. In contrast to this unique advantage exists the problem of the difficult control and diagnosis of the casting parameters which are responsible for the quality and the functionality of the casting. Only the melting parameters, chemical alloy composition and pouring temperature which can be set by inoculant or alloy wires and the heating capacity of the furnace before the casting are exceptions....

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  • 422 METHOD DEVELOPMENT Figure 8-47. Resolution map for all critical pairs. Color scale on the left indicates the minimum resolution that is predicted for a particular color in the resolution map. The x axis is the gradient time and the y axis is the temperature. The crosshair can be moved to obtained the predicted conditions for optimal resolution of all critical pairs. See color plate.

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