This category features the broadest application of the use of credit ratings. Member
authorities from every jurisdiction submitting responses indicated that their LRSPs contained
provisions using credit ratings for the purpose of determining net or regulatory capital, and
more LRSPs are applied to capital requirements than to any other category of use. Credit
ratings were generally used in those LRSPs as a means of mapping credit risks to capital
charges or risk weights.
A truly distributed service would allow a client to use services by connecting to a broker
nearest to the client’s geographical location. By having such local broker, a client does not
have to re-connect all the way back to the broker that it was last attached to. If the client is
not satisﬁed with the response times that it experiences or if the broker that it has connected
to fails, the client could very well choose to connect to some other local broker.
Earlier in the year, when the affiliate rule was first implemented, the state expected that
the planned expansion of Medicaid to non-elderly adults with incomes under 133% of poverty
under the Affordable Care Act in 2014 would ensure that most of the low-income WHP clients
would become eligible for Medicaid and that additional support might only be needed for those
women with incomes between 138% and 185% of poverty.
Currently there is uncertainty about the degree of difference in nutrient composition
between conventionally and organically produced foodstuffs. Organic foodstuffs are those
that are produced according to specified standards which, among other things, control the
use of chemicals and medicines in crop and animal production, and emphasise protection
of the environment. Recently published non-systematic reviews comparing nutrient
composition of organically and conventionally produced foods have come to contrasting
It has been a decade since book-length writing about law and the Internet began
in earnest. Ethan Katsh’s wonderful book Law in a Digital World (1995) is
just over a decade old, and anticipated the flood. My first book, Code and Other
Laws of Cyberspace (1999), is just under.
Most of these early books had a common character. We were all trying first to
make the obscure understandable, and second, to draw lessons from the understood
about how law and technology needed to interact.
In some cases, there may be reasonable proxies for quantified benefits and costs. For
example, a firm might possess relatively complete technical descriptions of material flows
(inputs, intermediate products, emissions). These material quantities, while not explicitly
translated into financial quantities, may provide rules of thumb that qualitatively inform
decision-making and guard against severe errors in decision-making.
Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S.
Moreover, there is a contradiction between central approval and local
priority-setting. This is almost a problem of the technocrats against the
people. In some countries, the technocrats at the central level are excel-
lent, and they want projects to be technically sound before they approve
them. In other countries, the technicians are not as good. However, there
may be a more democratic aspect here, because the technicians do not
demand as much of the projects as the more technically advanced coun-
Although the vision of P2P systems is grand, the technical challenges associated with them are immense, and as a
result the realization of the vision has been elusive. Because the membership in the system is ad-hoc and dynamic, it is
very difﬁcult to predict or reason about the location and quality of the system’s resources. For example, the placement
of data in content-sharing systems is often na¨ ıve: data placement is largely demand driven, with little regard given to
network bandwidth, load, or historical trustworthiness of the peer on which the data is placed.
When plasma volumes are maintained at or near normal levels, turgidity of the blood
does not occur and the heart can continue to pump blood to the body surface and
extremities, thus assisting heat dissipation and avoiding potential ‘explosive heat death’.
Other factors, which play a role in maintaining plasma volume are connected with the
attraction of water. Glucose levels rise on dehydration, resulting in hyperglycaemia; the
hygroscopic glucose then attracts water to the blood.
Mexican corporations that do not accept foreign investment (by stipulating as such in their by-
laws) may acquire real property in the Prohibited Zone for any purpose. In contrast, while a
Mexican company that allows foreign investment may also purchase real property within the
Prohibited Zone, it can do so for non-residential purposes only, and provided that the corporation’s
by-laws demand adherence to the Calvo Clause and that the corporation notifies the Secretary of
Foreign Relations (SRE).
The emergence of Islamic banking in recent years is one of the most important trends in
the financial world. There has always been a demand among Muslims for financial
products and services that conform to the Shariah (Islamic law). With the development of
viable Islamic alternatives to conventional finance, Muslims are increasingly able to
participate in the financial world without bearing an economic penalty.
Paleontologists estimate that 99% of all species that ever existed have vanished
from the planet. To understand the process of extinction, paleontologists have
measured the lifetime of species—especially species that leave lots of fossils
behind. Mollusks (a group of invertebrates that includes snails and clams) leave
some of the most complete fossil records of any animal.
Michael Foote, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago, and his col-
leagues inventoried fossils of mollusks that lived in the ocean around New Zealand
over the past 43 million years.
Attackers break into the web application by thinking like a programmer: identifying how the
application is intended to work and determining shortcuts used to build the application. The
hacker then attempts to interact with the application and its surrounding infrastructure in malicious
ways simply by using the web browser or any of a large number of automatic hacker tools, such
as CGI scanners and HTTP proxys.
Seagram acquired substantially all of the outstanding PolyGram
shares. On that date, Philips received NLG 11,531 million in cash and 47,831,952 Seagram
shares representing approximately 12% of the outstanding Seagram shares. The sale of
PolyGram resulted in a gain of NLG 10,675 million, or NLG 29.65 per share, free of taxes.
In order to gain insight into the Company’s cash flows, earnings capacity and financial
position, the information about discontinued operations has been segregated from the
information about continuing operations.
A CEO’s influence on the board can reduce the board’s effectiveness in
monitoring managers. The greater a CEO’s influence on the board, the less
likely the board is to suspect irregularities that a more independent board
may have caught. Concerns about a CEO’s influence on the board have led
the NYSE to propose that each board have a nominating or corporate governance
committee that is comprised solely of independent directors.
Results from this laboratory can be used for a discussion of the biological consequences of
pollution and will provide students with an appreciation for how dilution influences a chemical's
biological effect. While endocrine disrupters are currently a 'hot topic,' other pollutants could also
be tested. We tested some heavy metals (which are a perennial concern) and had some very
interesting growth abnormalities show up. Chemical pollutants are not the only parameters that may
influence sponge growth.
Part of feeling secure is knowing that capture is automatic. While browser web capture at first struck us as
somewhat trivial, this essential feature has changed our behavior. The failure of Gemmell’s hard drive
resulted in losing four months of captured web pages and was an emotional and productivity blow –
perhaps like having one’s memories taken away. Even months later, he searches for information expected
to be in the web archive, only to realize that it was lost.
Within developing countries, health sector reform, often including decen-
tralized priority setting, increases the information and advocacy burden for
inclusion of SRH concerns. Central functions (like operating logistic systems
and service quality control) require high-level commitment and a supportive
policy and regulatory framework.
The international discussion on SRH emphasizes an outcome-oriented
public health approach but people react to multiple dimensions. Strong pas-
sions and intensive debates continue on a range of issues: abortion, adolescent
SRH and even family planning.
To promote economic development and attain the MDGs—especially the overarching poverty
reduction MDG and the gender equality MDG—the global community must renew its attention
to women’s economic empowerment and increase investments in women.
Gains in women’s
economic opportunities lag behind those in women’s capabilities.