Software error detection is one of the most challenging problems in software engineering. Now, you can learn how to make the most of software testing by selecting test cases to maximize the probability of revealing latent errors. Software Error Detection through Testing and Analysis begins with a thorough discussion of test-case selection and a review of the concepts, notations, and principles used in the book.
Learning objectives in this chapter: Understand the purpose of defining test adequacy criteria, and their limitations; understand basic terminology of test selection and adequacy; know some sources of information commonly used to define adequacy criteria; understand how test selection and adequacy criteria are used.
A key problem in software testing is selecting and evaluating test cases. This chapter introduces basic approaches to test case selection and corresponding adequacy criteria. It serves as a general introduction to the problem and provides a conceptual framework for functional and structural approaches described in subsequent chapters.
In lecture Software testing and analysis - Chapter 10, you will: Understand the rationale for systematic (nonrandom) selection of test cases; understand why functional test selection is a primary, base-line technique; distinguish functional testing from other systematic testing techniques.
In this chapter, we begin with functional tests based on specification of intended behavior, add selected structural test cases based on the software structure, and work from unit testing and small-scale integration testing toward larger integration and then system testing.
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Understand the rationale for systematic (nonrandom) selection of test cases; understand why functional test selection is a primary, base-line technique; distinguish functional testing from other systematic testing techniques.
The structure of the software itself is a valuable source of information for selecting test cases and determining whether a set of test cases has been sufficiently thorough. Learning objectives of this chapter: Understand rationale for structural testing, recognize and distinguish basic terms, recognize and distinguish characteristics of common structural criteria, understand practical uses and limitations of structural testing.
Exercising every statement or branch with test cases is a practical goal, but exercising every path is impossible. Even the number of simple (that is, loop-free) paths can be exponential in the size of the program. Path-oriented selection and adequacy criteria must therefore select a tiny fraction of control flow paths. Data flow test adequacy criteria improve over pure control flow criteria by selecting paths based on how one syntactic element can affect the computation of another.
Systematic testing of object-oriented software is fundamentally similar to systematic testing approaches for procedural software. In this chapter, we begin with functional tests based on specification of intended behavior, add selected structural test cases based on the software structure, and work from unit testing and small-scale integration testing toward larger integration and then system testing.
Intelligence quotient (IQ) test are standardised tests to measure human intelligence and they are a common place characteristic of the education system and Einstellungs-und selective procedure. This book seizes, where Book leave 4 pieces with ten new tests in each case forty questions, completely with a manual to the evaluation of the achievement. By the study of the different kinds of tests, and in acknowledgment of the different kinds of questions, it is to be improved for everyone to their Score and to the increase of its IQ evaluation possible....
A Quick Guide to Human Resource Testing is a quick reference guide for human resource (HR) practitioners who use or plan to use assessment instruments in any context. It includes explanations, tips, case studies and suggestions to help practitioners get the most out of their HR testing. Those in charge of recruiting and selecting new staff face a decision-making process that needs to be responsible in its implementation and to produce a positive and wide-ranging outcome.
While the average performance of statistical parsers gradually improves, they still attach to many sentences annotations of rather low quality. The number of such sentences grows when the training and test data are taken from different domains, which is the case for major web applications such as information retrieval and question answering. In this paper we present a Sample Ensemble Parse Assessment (SEPA) algorithm for detecting parse quality.
This paper discusses sampling strategies for building a dependency-analyzed corpus and analyzes them with different kinds of corpora. We used the Kyoto Text Corpus, a dependency-analyzed corpus of newspaper articles, and prepared the IPAL corpus, a dependency-analyzed corpus of example sentences in dictionaries, as a new and different kind of corpus. The experimental results revealed that the length of the test set controlled the accuracy and that the longest-ﬁrst strategy was good for an expanding corpus, but this was not the case when constructing a corpus from scratch. ...
Exhaustive testing (use of all possible inputs and conditions) is impractical
must use a subset of all possible test cases.
must have high probability of detecting faults.
Need thought processes that help to select test cases more intelligently.
test case design techniques are such thought processes.Effective testing: find more faults.
focus attention on specific types of fault.
know you're testing the right thing.
Efficient testing: find faults with less effort.
systematic techniques are measurable...
According to government estimates released in August 2008, about
134,000 HIV-positive individuals currently live in Argentina. Of those,
about half are thought to be unaware of their status. Women comprise
approximately one quarter of all people living with HIV, with the majority
of cases among women aged 30 to 39.
Between 1986 and 2007, a total of 3,857 individuals under 14 years
of age were diagnosed with HIV.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Relevance of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies: a review of case-based examples of selected immunodeficiencies...
PDi and LDi are aimed at testing the incidence of adverse selection: whether firms in
poor financial health and/or facing liquidity constraints are more likely to seek and get access
to bank credit. In the case of the liquidity dummy there is no ambiguity about the causality
and the interpretation of the results in terms of adverse selection. However, in the case of the
profitability dummy, again we cannot fully eliminate the endogeneity problem because – as
mentioned before – firm’s profit/loss position may affect also bank’s decision to extend the
THE EFFECTS OF CUSTOMER LOYALITY ON PROFITABILLITY Chapter Three turns to a wholly different, but not unrelated, topic, the role of
admissions exam scores in the identification of well-prepared students in the college
admissions process. The case for using such exams is often made with validity studies,
which estimate the correlation between test scores and eventual collegiate grades, both with
and without controls for high school grade point average. I argue that there are two
fundamental problems with these studies as they are often carried out.
A case study is a way to test the applicability of a theory using real-world
evidence. The intent is not necessarily to select a successful or unsuccessful example, but
rather to demonstrate that leadership is a key element in project management, and a
project cannot succeed without it. The selected case is tested in this step, with the purpose
of showing how leadership skills affect projects. The case study selected is Skanska, a
major international construction company.
66 67 68 69
pattern = '%' + request.vars.keyword.lower() + '%' pages = db(db.page.title.lower().like(pattern))\ .select(orderby=db.page.title) items = [A(row.title, _href=URL(r=request, f=show, args=row.id)) \ for row in pages] return UL(*items).xml()
Lines 2-6 provide a comment for the index action. Lines 4-5 inside the comment are interpreted by python as test code (doctest). Tests can be run via the admin interface. In this case the tests verify that the index action runs without errors. Lines 19, 33, and 43 try fetch a page record with the id in request.args(0).