Evidence grows daily of the rapid changes in climate due to human activities and
their impact on plants and animals. Plant function is inextricably linked to climate
and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. On the shortest and smallest scales
the climate affects the plant’s immediate environment and thus directly inﬂuences
physiological processes. On longer and larger time and space scales climate inﬂu-
ences species distribution and community composition and determines what crops
can be viably produced in managed agricultural, horticultural and forestry ecosys-
Global warming is the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C, with about two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels.
The rain forest takes an immense breath and then exhales, once every four or
five years, as a major global weather pattern plays out, usually heralded by
El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation. While this powerful natural cycle has occurred
for many millennia, it is during the past decade that both the climate of Earth
and the people living on it have had an increasing influence on the weather
pattern itself, with many biological consequences. In Southeast Asia, as also in
most of the Neotropics, El Nin˜o accompanies one of the most exuberant outpourings
of nature’s diversity.
The present publication has been prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (Geneva,
September 2009) and the 15th
Conference of the Parties to the United Framework
Convention on Climate Change (COP-15, Copenhagen, December 2009). It provides an
overview of recently completed and ongoing climate research projects undertaken under the
Research Framework Programmes of the European Community.
Space research is one of the most evocative and challenging fields of human endeavour.
In the half-century that has elapsed since the beginning of the space age, we
have been exposed to wonders beyond the imagination of even the most visionary of
science fiction writers. We have peered deep into the Universe and studied physics
that we can never duplicate on the Earth. We have begun to understand our own
Sun, and the flow of energy outward through the Solar System that is fundamental
to our existence.
Voluntary carbon offsets have been traded in relatively small volumes and on a
demonstration basis since the late 1980s. Some organizations, such as the Climate Trust
in Oregon, have many years of experience in purchasing and retiring offsets on behalf of
clients or customers (the Climate Trust was established in 1997 to assist new power
plants in Oregon to meet a state regulatory requirement for net CO2 emissions).
The Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. The complex process of evolution occurred on Earth only because of some unique environmental conditions that were present: water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a suitable surface temperature. Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer).
The most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states
that global warming will lead to “changes in all components of the freshwater system,” and
concludes that “water and its availability and quality will be the main pressures on, and issues
for, societies and the environment under climate change.”2
Nestlé’s chairman Peter Brabeck-
Letmathe puts it more bluntly, calling water availability a bigger challenge than energy security.
The Climate Bonds Initiative (“CBI” or “the Initiative”) is an investor-focused not-for-profit organisation, promoting
large-scale investments that will deliver a global low-carbon economy.
We seek to develop mechanisms to better align the interests of investors, industry and government so as to catalyse
investments at a speed and scale sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.
A key project is the Climate Bond International Standards and Certification Scheme (“Certification Scheme”).
By inadvertently increasing the concentration of energy-trapping gases in the
lower atmosphere, human actions have begun to amplify Earth’s natural green-
house effect. The primary challenge facing the world community is to achieve
sufﬁcient reduction in greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid dangerous inter-
ference in the climate system. National governments, via the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), are committed in principle to seeking
A heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is designed
to satisfy the environmental requirements of comfort or a process,
in a specific building or portion of a building and in a particular
geographic locale. Designers must understand a great deal beyond basic
HVAC system design and the outdoor climate. They must also understand
the process or the comfort requirements.
Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial
wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal
or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids.
This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved
in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater
When one is confronted with a new problem that involves the collection and analysis of data, two crucial
questions are: How will using statistics help solve this problem? And, Which techniques should be used?
This book is intended to help environmental engineers answer these questions in order to better understand
and design systems for environmental protection.
The book is not about the environmental systems, except incidentally. It is about how to extract
information from data and how informative data are generated in the first place.
This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution....
This book provides an interdisciplinary view of how to prepare the ecological and socio-economic systems to the reality of climate change. Scientifically sound tools are needed to predict its effects on regional, rather than global, scales, as it is the level at which socio-economic plans are designed and natural ecosystem reacts. The first section of this book describes a series of methods and models to downscale the global predictions of climate change, estimate its effects on biophysical systems and monitor the changes as they occur....
Words can easily borrow, but the meaning of love from the heart of a people is difficult to describe. So I want to ask for forgiveness from the people that support can not be appreciated in the words and from those who, by any chance, I forgot to mention.
First of all what I want to thank prof. dr.ir. Wind Herman and his wife - Joke. The interviews with prof. Wind held in Bangkok and his decision has helped me to be here, at the University of Twente, to carry out my doctoral research. Herman and Joke, I will never forget...
Climate dynamicists generally characterize the Hadley circulation in
terms of some derived meteorological parameters, such as the mass stream
function (the nondivergent part of the flow) or the velocity potential (the
divergent circulation), both of which are based on measurements of the
three-dimensional wind field. Yet, we know very little about how such indices
have varied in the past—beyond the most recent decades.
Since the publication of G. P. Lilley’s reference work Information Sources in
Agriculture and Food Science in 1981, we have been witness to incredible
changes both in the area of agricultural research and in our ability to disseminate
the results of that research. Advances have been made in the areas of plant and
animal genetics, in animal and human nutrition and health, and in our understanding
of the effects of human and climatic actions on the land and its natural resources.
Weather natural hazards, the environment and climate change are of concern to all of
us. Especially, it is essential to understand how human activities might impact the
nature. Hence, monitoring, research, and forecasting is of the outmost importance.
Furthermore, climate change and pollution of the environment do not obey national
borders; so, international collaboration on these issues is indeed extremely important.
While most consumers still base their travel decisions largely on price, value for money,
service and availability, more and more people are taking environmental factors into
The railway community is therefore working hard to provide customers with comprehensive
information on climate change, air pollution and the ‘external costs’ of transport.
New internet-based tools, such as EcoPassenger and EcoTransIT (see Figure 6), are
making a range of data available to customers.