The cost of raising capital

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  • The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) works exclusively in Latin America. It has just concluded a study and published a book called So- cial Investment Funds in Latin America: Past Performance and Future Role. It occurred about two years ago that social funds have become overwhelm- ingly popular all over the world. They started out as a way of respond- ing to adjustment and have developed in different ways, doing various things. The IDB decided to look at them to determine what is working and what is not working.

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  • In this chapter, we examine some of the ways in which firms actually raise capital. After studying this chapter, you should understand: The venture capital market and its role in the financing of new, highrisk ventures; how securities are sold to the public and the role of investment banks in the process; initial public offerings and some of the costs of going public; how rights are issued to existing shareholders and how to value those rights.

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  • The topic discussed in chapter 15 is raising capital. This chapter include objectives: Understand the venture capital market and its role in financing new businesses, understand how securities are sold to the public and the role of investment bankers, understand initial public offerings and the costs of going public.

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  • Furthermore, when lenders institute non-interest charges such as fees to compensate for interest rate ceilings, they effectively raise the cost of credit for all successful borrowers. Therefore, while a ceiling may reduce the explicit price of credit (interest rate), it may not result in lower overall costs of borrowing even for those able to obtain loans. Additionally, non-interest charges make it more complicated for customers to comprehend the total cost of borrowing and more difficult to make well-informed credit decisions.

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  • Capital planning plays a key role in banks’ business decisions. The cost of equity financing and return targets on shareholders’ funds shape banks’ capital allocation and product pricing. Given the importance of equity capital in absorbing losses, prudential regulators require banks to hold sufficient equity to cover risks. Regulation that motivates banks to raise equity financing when capital is cheap would promote the interests of long-term shareholders. All these considerations call for a better understanding of what drives the cost of bank capital.

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  • Basic Skills: (Time value of money, Financial Statements) Investments: (Stocks, Bonds, Risk and Return) Corporate Finance: (The Investment Decision - Capital Budgeting) For Investors, the rate of return on a security is a benefit of investing. For Financial Managers, that same rate of return is a cost of raising funds that are needed to operate the firm. In other words, the cost of raising funds is the firm’s cost of capital.

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  • When it comes to finance, American companies appear to be getting a clue. From 1988 to 1996, they reduced the amount of money they spent on basic accounting and financial chores from 2.2 percent of their annual revenues down to 1.4 percent. That's a 36 percent savings. company's finances must be managed. In fact, there isn't a single department, division, work unit, or employee who doesn't come into contact with a company's finances. Assets and liabilities, and revenues and expenses, are affected every time an employee is hired, merchandise is moved, or paperwork is pushed....

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  • Our analysis shows that it is cheaper for banks to raise capital during an economic expansion than in a recession. The low hurdle rate for investment in a boom can have a procyclical effect. It encourages credit growth that can further boost economic activity. From a prudential viewpoint, this evidence supports the rationale behind the introduction of countercyclical capital buffer requirements, which increase in booms and decline in busts.

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  • Second, the high levels of banks’ discretionary capital observed do not appear to be explained by buffers that banks hold to insure against falling below the minimum capital requirement. Banks that would face a lower cost of raising equity at short notice (profitable, dividend paying banks with high market to book ratios) tend to hold significantly more capital. Third, the consistency between non-financial firms and banks does not extend to the components of leverage (deposit and non-deposit liabilities).

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  • Recent imperfect capital market theories (e.g., Bernanke and Gertler (1989), Gertler and Gilchrist (1994), Kiyotaki and Moore (1997)) predict that changing credit market conditions can have very di®erent e®ects on small and large ¯rms' risk. Agency costs induced by asymmetry in the infor- mation held by ¯rms and their creditors make it necessary for ¯rms to use collateral when borrowing in the credit markets. Small ¯rms, it is argued, typically do not have nearly as much collateral as large ¯rms and will not have the same ability to raise external funds.

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  • The Securities and Exchange Commission has for many years been a strong leader in international efforts to develop a core set of accounting standards that could serve as a framework for financial reporting in cross-border offerings. It has repeatedly made the case that issuers wishing to raise capital in more than one country are faced with the increased compliance costs and inefficiencies of preparing multiple sets of financial statements to comply with different jurisdictional accounting requirements.

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