What would science be without measurement, and what would social
science be without social measurement? Social measurement belongs
to the widely accepted and fruitful stream of the empirical-analytic
approach. Statistics and research methodology play a central role, and
it is difficult to ascertain precisely when it all started in the social
sciences. An important subfield of social measurement is the quantification
of human behavior—that is, using measurement instruments
of which educational and psychological tests are the most prominent
Are you serious about network security? Then check out SSH, the Secure Shell, which provides key-based authentication and transparent encryption for your network connections. It's reliable, robust, and reasonably easy to use, and both free and commercial implementations are widely available for most operating systems. While it doesn't solve every privacy and security problem, SSH eliminates several of them very effectively.
Today, the term reliability is part of our everyday language, especially when speaking about the functionality of a product. A very reliable product is a product that fulfils its function at all times and under all operating conditions. The technical definition for reliability differs only slightly by expanding this common definition by probability: reliability is the probability that a product does not fail under given functional und environmental conditions during a defined period of time (VDI guidelines 4001).
Ready to unlock the power of your data? With this comprehensive guide, you’ll learn how to build and maintain reliable, scalable, distributed systems with Apache Hadoop. This book is ideal for programmers looking to analyze datasets of any size, and for administrators who want to set up and run Hadoop clusters.
Technical approaches seek to reduce the emissions produced by road vehicles using the
transport system by intervening with the vehicles being used and the fuels they are burning. By
definition, these approaches address per unit emissions rather than the amount of activity causing
the emissions. An exclusively technological approach may be insufficient to address the growth
in emissions, for a number of reasons. First, growt h in activity continuously puts pressure on
To the student of the origins of Christianity there is naturally no period of Western history of greater interest
and importance than the first century of our era; and yet how little comparatively is known about it of a really
definite and reliable nature.
In addition to the risk mitigation efforts discussed above, there is also the need for some sort of „rating
agency‟ or standard setter to „approve‟ green projects (such as green bonds or green funds) to ensure that
funds are used for green investments (and there is a common definition of „green‟) and that insurance and
guarantees can therefore be reliably offered.
Recovered memories refers to the recall of traumatic events, typically of
sexual abuse in childhood, by adults who have exhibited little or no previous
awareness of such experiences. The controversy over the reliability
and veracity of such memories has not only split families, but also the
psychological profession. The debate has continued, as much in the sober
pages of scientific and professional journals, as in the public arenas of
press, television and popular books.
Among the methods to control weeds, the use of herbicides or weed killers has become the
most reliable and least expensive tool for weed control in places where highly mechanized
agriculture is practiced. Since the introduction of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in
1946, several classes of herbicides were developed that are effective for broad-spectrum of
weed control (Böger et al, 2002; Cobb, 1992; Ware, 2000).
It is well know that various compounds can interfere with photosynthetic electron transport....
Spirax Sarco is the recognized industry standard for
knowledge and products and for over 85 years has
been committed to servicing the steam users worldwide.
The existing and potential applications for steam,
water and air are virtually unlimited. Beginning with
steam generation, through distribution and utilization
and ultimately returning condensate to the boiler,
Spirax Sarco has the solutions to optimize steam system
performance and increase productivity to save
valuable time and money.
Over the past 30 years, environmental policies and related reporting activities adopted by OECD countries have
steadily evolved. This evolution has been largely driven by increased public awareness of environmental issues, their
international aspects and their linkages with economic and social issues. Initially the demand for environmental
information was closely related to the definition and implementation of environmental policies and their effects on the
state of the environment.
Credit hour is the unit by which an institution measures its course work. The number of
credit hours assigned to a course quantitatively reflects the outcomes expected, the mode
of instruction, the amount of time spent in class, and the amount of outside preparatory
work expected for the class.
Considerable variation exists from institution to institution and within a given institution.
A semester credit hour is the most commonly used system of measuring course work and
is usually based on at least a 14-17 week calendar.
The careful application of the principles of soil treatment discussed in the preceding chapters will leave the soil in good condition for sowing, either in the fall or spring. Nevertheless, though proper dry-farming insures a first-class seed-bed, the problem of sowing is one of the most difficult in the successful production of crops without irrigation. This is chiefly due to the difficulty of choosing, under somewhat rainless conditions, a time for sowing that will insure rapid and complete germination and the establishmcnt of a root system capable of producing good plants.
In a well-structured Lexica] Data B a s e , a number of relations among lexica] entries can he interactively evidenced. The present article examines hyponymy, as an example of paradigmatic relation, and "restriction" relation, as a syntagmatic relation. The theoretical results of their implementation are illustrated.
This book aims to give a complete and self-contained presentation of semi-
Markov models with finitely many states, in view of solving real life problems of
risk management in three main fields: Finance, Insurance and Reliability
providing a useful complement to our first book (Janssen and Manca (2006))
which gives a theoretical presentation of semi-Markov theory. However, to help
assure the book is self-contained, the first three chapters provide a summary of
the basic tools on semi-Markov theory that the reader will need to understand our
Statistical methods for survival data analysis have continued to flourish in the
last two decades. Applications of the methods have been widened from their
historical use in cancer and reliability research to business, criminology,
epidemiology, and social and behavioral sciences. The third edition of Statistical
Methods for Survival Data Analysis is intended to provide a comprehensive
introduction of the most commonly used methods for analyzing survival data.
It begins with basic definitions and interpretations of survival functions....