The developing countries

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  • It is widely accepted that technology is one of the forces driving economic growth. Although more and more new technologies have emerged, various evidence shows that their performances were not as high as expected. In both academia and practice there are still many questions about what technologies to adopt and how to manage these technologies.

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  • PUBLIC GOODS, PRIVATE INCENTIVES, AND AGRICULTURAL R&D: PRODUCTIVITY AND POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY AGRICULTURE Like Baker, McMillan, and Reuben (2002), I identify parental valuations by the location of clusters of high income families: If parental preferences over communities depend exclusively on the effectiveness of the local schools, the most desirable—and therefore wealthiest—communities are necessarily those with the most effective schools.

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  • From the historical perspective, the two central problems facing most of the developing countries are: Who should bear the burden of the costs of development? and How should these costs be shared between those in the urban and rural sectors? The inevitable conflicts between the two have, in fact, been a long standing theme, reflected in the debates, in Britain over the Corn Laws, in the United States over industrial tariffs, and in Russia over the size of the "scissors." The book provides for the first time a unifying framework within which these questions can be systematically approached.

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  • TREE ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES This could be because effectiveness is swamped by the peer group in parental preferences or because it is difficult to observe directly. In either case, administrators who pursue unproductive policies are unlikely to be disciplined by parental exit and Tiebout choice can create only weak incentives for productive school management.

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  • MONEY DEMAND IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A DYNAMIC PANEL APPROACH Regardless of parental valuations, then, families always prefer a high-μ house to one with lower μ . Because willingness-topay for a preferred school is increasing in x, equilibrium is unique, with the ranking of districts by effectiveness is identical to that by the income of the resident family.

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  • This paper reviews the impacts of the changes on the main markets and examines the prospects for the market s and the source countries. The main conclusions are as follows: after the renewal of quantitative restrictions on Chinese garment exports were agreed with the US and the EU, the post-MFA surge in Chinese grment exports was significantly attenuated.

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  • Chapter 39 - The economics of developing countries. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Describe how the World Bank distinguishes between industrial advanced countries (high-income nations) and developing countries (middle-income and low-income nations), list some of the obstacles to economic development, explain the vicious circle of poverty that afflicts low-income nations, discuss the role of government in promoting economic development within low-income nations, describe how industrial nations attempt to aid low-income countries.

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  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Describe how the World Bank distinguishes between industrial advanced countries (high-income nations) and developing countries (middle-income and low-income nations), list some of the obstacles to economic development, explain the vicious circle of poverty that afflicts low-income nations, discuss the role of government in promoting economic development within low-income nations.

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  • The last two decades have witnessed an extensive growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to developing countries. This has been accompanied by an increase in competition amongst the developing countries to attract FDI, resulting in a rise in investment incentives offered by the host governments and removal of restrictions on operations of foreign firms in their countries. This has also led to an ever-increasing number of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and regional agreements on...

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  • This paper considers the main elements of the standard pattern of fi nancial liberalization that has become widely prevalent in developing countries. The theoretical arguments in favour of such liberalization are considered and critiqued, and the political economy of such measures is discussed. The problems for developing countries, with respect to fi nancial fragility and the greater propensity to crisis, as well as the negative defl ationary and developmental effects, are discussed.

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  • With some six billion mobile subscriptions now in use worldwide, around three-quarters of the world’s inhabitants now have access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous modern technology in some developing countries, more people have access to a mobile phone than to clean water, a bank account or even electricity. Mobile communications now offer major opportunities to advance human development from providing basic access to education or health information to making cash payments and stimulating citizen involvement in democratic processes.

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  • Assessing the Impact of Transport and Energy Infrastructure on Poverty Reduction Cynthia C. Cook Tyrrell Duncan Somchai Jitsuchon Anil Sharma Wu Guobao iii .© 2005 Asian Development Bank All rights reserved. Published 2005. Printed in the Philippines. Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Asian Development Bank Study of the effects of transport and energy infrastructure investments on poverty reduction ISBN: 971-561-580-5 Publication Stock No.

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  • This paper considers the main elements of the standard pattern of fi nancial liberalization that has become widely prevalent in developing countries. The theoretical arguments in favour of such liberalization are considered and critiqued, and the political economy of such measures is discussed. The problems for developing countries, with respect to fi nancial fragility and the greater propensity to crisis, as well as the negative defl ationary and developmental effects, are discussed.

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  • Populations in developing countries are growing so quickly that the land and water are unable to sustain them. In most developing countries, prime farmland and fresh water are already fully utilized. Although irrigation can be employed to bring land in arid areas into production, it often leads to salinization. In some countries, the amount of newly irrigated land is equalled by salinized irrigated land going out of production. Moreover, irrigation water is often drawn from river basins or aquifers shared by several countries, and friction over its use is common....

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  • Ageing of the population is a major phenomenon in the present day world as a result of the changing demographic transition. Though the phenomenon has a universal character, it occurs in various countries at different point of time. The ageing is a phenomenon already occurred in the developed countries in the latter half of the twentieth century. The similar situation is emerging in the developing countries in the recent periods. Although the proportion of elderly in the years 60 and above is considered to be relatively low in the case of the developing countries such as India and...

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  • This guidance complements existing national initiatives to promote social and emotional wellbeing. It should be considered in the context of the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) programme (Department for Education and Skills 2005a; 2005b), the Healthy Schools programme (Department for Education and Skills 2005c) and related community-based initiatives. These all stress the importance of enabling children to participate fully in the development of such programmes to ensure their views are heard. ...

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  • Men in French-speaking African countries have largely been left out of the family planning equation. Men have had little opportunity to become involved as family planning partici - pants or as advocates. Nevertheless, men’s interest is growing stronger, while contraceptive use is increasing. In Senegal, for example, successive DHS show that the prevalence of mod- ern contraceptive use quadrupled during the past decade, from 2% in 1986 to 8% in 1997.

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  • Economic growth in South Africa depends on engineering capacity to provide state-of-the-art, safe infrastructure for service delivery. At the same time the new democracy needs to address transformation. This monograph explores current capacity to address these challenges.

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  • Using the same type of estimate, the full trade liberalisation of manufactured goods would lead to earnings of around US$96 billion per year for the developing countries, ie, 48% of total profits. Although significant headway has already been made in the trade liberalisation of manufactured products, potential profits are still important. However, most earnings derive from trade liberalisation between the developing countries themselves.

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  • This book is meant for everyone who is involved in climate-related projects in developingcountries. Both researchers and policymakers can benefit from the experiences and evaluationsof the NCCSAP studies.

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