Death and Dying The most common causes of death in patients with cancer are infection (leading to circulatory failure), respiratory failure, hepatic failure, and renal failure. Intestinal blockage may lead to inanition and starvation. Central nervous system disease may lead to seizures, coma, and central hypoventilation. About 70% of patients develop dyspnea preterminally. However, many months usually pass between the diagnosis of cancer and the occurrence of these complications, and during this period the patient is severely affected by the possibility of death. ...
Defining the Extent of Disease and the Prognosis The first priority in patient management after the diagnosis of cancer is established and shared with the patient is to determine the extent of disease. The curability of a tumor usually is inversely proportional to the tumor burden. Ideally, the tumor will be diagnosed before symptoms develop or as a consequence of screening efforts (Chap. 78). A very high proportion of such patients can be cured.
Cancer Chemoprevention Chemoprevention involves the use of specific natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenesis before the development of invasive malignancy.
Cancer develops through an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes that are potential points of intervention to prevent cancer. The initial changes are termed initiation. The alteration can be inherited or acquired through the action of physical, infectious, or chemical carcinogens.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signalling molecules in living
cells. It is believed that ROS molecules are the main triggers of the hyper-sensitive response (HR) in plants. In the present study of the effect of ribo-flavin, which is excited to generate ROS in light, on the development of the
HR induced by the elicitin protein ParA1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)
Colon cancer is one of the most common human cancers worldwide. Owing
to its aggressiveness and lethality, it is necessary to determine the mecha-nisms regulating the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. EphrinA5 has been reported to act as a putative tumor suppressor in glioma; however, little is
known concerning the role of this protein in the context of colon cancer.
It is important to note that the metastatic cells do
not float about in isolation; rather, they reside within
the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of the host organ. The
ECM is a complex mesh of proteins that fill voids be-
tween cells, and it participates in the development of
both healthy and cancer cells through chemical and
mechanical signalling. There is evidence that changes
in the stiffness of the ECM affect the signalling and
hence the progress of the cancer.
There have been a significant number of advances
in the field of cancer research since the
first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published
in 1981. These include advances in defining
the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer
cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular
imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors,
the regulation of gene expression, and the
‘‘-omics’’ techniquesofgenomics, proteomics,and
metabolomics, among others.
New Concepts in the Development of Cancer Therapeutics
Cancer Stem Cells
It has long been recognized that only a small proportion of the cells within a tumor are capable of initiating colonies in vitro or of forming tumors at high efficiency when injected into immunocompromised NOD/SCID mice. Current work indicates that human acute and chronic myeloid leukemias (AML and CML) have a small population of cells (
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the development of small cell lung cancer induced by HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins
Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer Hormonal manipulation is being tested in the primary prevention of breast cancer. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen with partial estrogen agonistic activity in some tissues, such as endometrium and bone. One of its actions is to upregulate transforming growth factor β, which decreases breast cell proliferation. In randomized placebo-controlled trials to assess tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, tamoxifen reduced the number of new breast cancers in the opposite breast by more than a third.
Karnofsky was among the first to champion the evaluation of a chemotherapeutic agent's benefit by carefully quantitating its effect on tumor size and using these measurements to objectively decide the basis for further treatment of a particular patient or further clinical evaluation of a drug's potential.
Chemoprevention of Cancers of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Smoking causes diffuse epithelial injury in the head, neck, esophagus, and lung. Patients cured of squamous cell cancers of the lung, esophagus, head, and neck are at risk (as high as 5% per year) of developing second cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of cigarette smoking does not markedly decrease the cured cancer patient's risk of second malignancy, even though it does lower the cancer risk in those who have never developed a malignancy.
Solid Tumors Small-molecule epidermal growth factor (EGF) antagonists act at the ATP binding site of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In early clinical trials, gefitinib showed evidence of responses in a small fraction of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Side effects were generally acceptable, consisting mostly of rash and diarrhea. Gefitinib was found to have antitumor activity mainly in the subset of patients with tumors containing activating mutations in the EGF receptor.
It is important that cord blood transplantation is one of the risk
factors of symptomatic adenoviremia (Robin et al., 2007), which develops to acute renal
failure in the terminal stage (Abe T et al., 2009).
At present, there is no established consensus about the treatment for acute renal failure
induced by adenovirus after stem cell transplantation. This chapter focuses on the recent
advances in diagnosis, mostly due to the development of molecular methods, and
a whirlwind on the social scene, Milinda, 24, first
joined the Family planning association of Sri
lanka as a peer educator in 2004. he received
training, and then went out to meet young
people in 16 districts to reveal all about sexual
and reproductive health and rights. Milinda was
hooked: he saw the need for information and
services and made it a personal mission to raise
awareness of young people’s issues.
Repression/Denial. In a meta-analytic review of the literature of psychosocial fac-
tors and the development of breast cancer, McKenna and colleagues (1999) found sig-
nificant effect sizes for an association between breast cancer and the use of a coping
strategy based on denial/repression.
Astudy by Jensen (1983) provides important evidence supporting the idea that repres-
sion involves disregulation of the immune system that, in turn, influences cancer.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Targeting MDM2 by the small molecule RITA: towards the development of new multi-target drugs against cancer
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is a rare cancer but represents the most common
liver malignancy in children under 3 years of age. Nevertheless, a clear
understanding of the pathogenesis is lacking. Although the treatment of
HB has been dramatically improved by combining chemotherapy regimens
A major unmet clinical need exists for long-acting neurotherapeutics to
alleviate chronic pain in patients unresponsive to available nonaddictive
analgesics. Herein, a new strategy is described for the development of
potent and specific inhibitors of the neuronal exocytosis of transmitters
and pain mediators that exhibit unique antinociceptive activity.