When fuel cells were first suggested and discussed back in the nineteenth century,
it was firmly hoped that distinctly higher efficiencies could be attained with them
when converting the chemical energy of natural fuels to electric power. Now
that the world supply of fossil fuels is seen to be finite, this hope turns into
a need, into a question of maintaining advanced standards of life.
Every employee has a story at Cummins Power Generation. Some are stories of coming to work with a parent when they were young, becoming employees themselves, then watching their children as they carry on the legacy. Others tell of starting at a distributorship and moving on to one of the many Cummins Power Generation offices located around the world. Some tell of starting at a regional office, before moving to global headquarters. Others talk of their days as customers working for utility companies.
In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. In the context of propulsion systems, an air-breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried rather than supplying an independent oxidizer, as in a rocket.
Purposes of the study - To identify the content of emission components when the LPG supply system is fitted into diesel engine; to assess the effect of reducing emissions of diesel - LPG dual fuel engine.
To me, the most extraordinary example of poor preparedness took place
in the last week of September 2005. The South had just begun the long
recovery from the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, and was bracing for
the anticipated onslaught of Hurricane Rita. After Katrina, local, state, and
federal governments had been widely criticized regarding their disaster
management and were fearful of more missteps. Repercussions were
widespread: gas and oil prices around the country surged because of
current compromises of fuel supplies from the hard-hit Gulf of Mexico,
and fears for the future....
Part one cold water and supply systems, part two hot water supply systems, part three heating systems, part four fuel characteristics and storage, part five ventilation systems, part six air conditioning,... As the main contents of the ebook "Building Services". Invite you to consult.
A control system is a collection of components working together under the direction of
some machine intelligence. In most cases, electronic circuits provide the intelligence,
and electromechanical components such as sensors and motors provide the interface to
the physical world. A good example is the modern automobile. Various sensors supply
the on-board computer with information about the engine’s condition. The computer
then calculates the precise amount of fuel to be injected into the engine and adjusts the
ignition timing. T...
The present edition has been updated in a number of renewable energy
technology areas (Chapter 4 and 5), where progress have been made over the
recent years. New solar simulation studies have been added to Chapter 6,
and market considerations have been included in the overview in Chapter 1,
and in discussing industry liberalisation in Chapter 7. The remarks on
advanced subjects made in the preface to the 2nd edition are still valid. A new
growth area is fuel cells for stationary and mobile uses of hydrogen and
In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. In the context of propulsion systems, an air-breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried rather than supplying an independent oxidizer
Energy efficiency is finally a common sense term. Nowadays almost everyone knows that using energy more efficiently saves money, reduces the emissions of greenhouse gasses and lowers dependence on imported fossil fuels. We are living in a fossil age at the peak of its strength. Competition for securing resources for fuelling economic development is increasing, price of fuels will increase while availability of would gradually decline.
The closed engine test cell system makes a suitable case for students to study an example of the flow of heat and change in entropy. In almost all engine test cells the vast majority of the energy comes into the system as highly concentrated ‘chemical energy’ entering the cell via the smallest penetration in the cell wall, the fuel line. It leaves the cell as lower grade heat energy via the largest penetrations: the ventilation duct, engine exhaust pipe and the cooling water pipes.
There is an upward trend that human activities involve more electric power nowadays
and for years to come. And we will soon be facing shortage of electricity supply if we
rely solely on non-renewable power generation from fossil fuels such as coals.
Renewable energy generation has proven effective in meeting the demand.
Traditional electrical power systems were essentially based on centralized and fuel
consuming power generation plants, where end-users were supplied via
unidirectional transmission and distribution grids.
Interest in power systems economics is gaining momentum with the recent power supply shortages in America and the rising cost of fossil fuels. The involvement of independent power generators, brokers and distributors has changed the way in which power systems operate. Kirschen and Strbac use a combination of traditional engineering techniques and fundamental economics to address the long-term problems of power system development in a competitive environment.
This is not to say that the US market has stalled: ReliOn, IdaTech and Altergy all found an early
market there and, while expanding their global reach, continue to supply systems for domestic
customers who reap the beneﬁ ts of reliable power. Altergy in particular has recently announced
some very large US orders, including a total of 22 MW of its 10 kW and 15 kW Freedom Power
fuel cell systems for mobile phone company MetroPCS for which deployments are underway.
Bloom Energy’s product is proving an increasingly popular choice for data centres and in March
2012 the company launched its ‘Mission Critical Practice’, a service that aims to secure the
energy supply for critical government and business IT systems. By providing highly reliable power
independently of the electricity grid, fuel cell systems help to improve data security and minimise
the effect of grid disruptions (for more information on this application please refer to the Special
Feature on page 30).
The increasing demand for communications services and the desire for increased data throughput in modern communications systems has fueled research and development into the use of adaptive antenna arrays. Since frequency bandwidth is in short supply and is expensive to acquire, the ability to separate users based on their spatial parameters is very attractive for wireless networks. Adaptive antenna arrays offer the ability to increase the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a wireless communication link while at the same time permit the cancellation and removal of co-channel interference. ...