The history of economic systems

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  • Capitalism and socialism have not existed forever. Capitalism came into widespread existence in the mid-1700s; socialism came into existence in the early 1900s. Before capitalism and socialism other forms of economic systems existed: Feudalism dominated the Western world from about the 8th to the 15th century.

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  • C H A P T E R T W E N T Y - S E V E N The Economic Role of Government in the History of Economic Thought The question as to the appropriate role for government within the economic system is as old as economic thought. For much of that history, the economy was seen as but one piece of a larger social system and the study of economics

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  • C H A P T E R F O U R Mercantilism In common scholarly and popular vocabulary, the concept of “mercantilism” designates either a system of economic policy or an epoch in the development of economic doctrine during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

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  • C H A P T E R T H I R T Y - E I G H T The History of Ideas and Economics Ideas are intellectualized concepts. Some seem so attractive that they are benchmarks, or “authority-statements.” Different authority-statements develop, intermingle, and mature into comprehensive “authority-systems".

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  • 8 The Years of High Theory: II 8.1.1. The first signs of dissent Marshall’s theoretical system, perhaps precisely because of his wish to understand the real world and his attempt to link social evolutionism to the utilitarian ethic, ended up by assuming an ambiguous character and provoked a critical reaction.

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  • This study traces the history of the law of bills and notes in England from medieval times to the period in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when bills played a central role in the domestic and international financial system. It challenges the traditional theory that English commercial law developed by incorporation of the concept of negotiability and other rules from an ancient body of customary law known as the law merchant.

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  • Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973) is arguably the most important economist of the twentieth century, and one of the greatest social philosophers ever. He made a large number of lasting contributions to economic theory, yet his main achievement is in the elaboration of a comprehensive system of social analysis. Mises had started his career as a student of economic and social history and then became a top policy analyst and government advisor in his native Austria.

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  • What constitutes a just tax system, and what are its moral foundations? Should a society's tax regime be designed to achieve a just distribution of wealth among its citizens, or should such a regime be designed to promote economic growth, rising standards of living, and increasing levels of employment? Are these two goals compatible or incompatible? Why should justice not require, or at least lead to, an increase in general prosperity? The essays in this volume examine the history of tax policies and the normative principles that have informed the selection of various types of taxes and tax...

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  • The mutual fund data come from the 1998 CRSP Survivor Bias FreeMutual Fund Database. Our initial sample contains 2,609 domestic equity mutual funds. We exclude multiple share classes for the same fund as well as funds with only a year or less of available returns. The initial sample is used to obtain the values of the prior parameters in the empirical Bayes pro- cedure mentioned previously.

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  • You have here a unique academic treatise on money and banking, a book which combines erudition, clarity of expression, economic theory, monetary theory, economic history, and an appropriate dose of conspiracy theory. Anyone who attempts to explain the mystery of banking—a deliberately contrived mystery in many ways—apart from all of these aspects has not done justice to the topic. But, then again, this is an area in which justice has always been regarded as a liability.

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  • For a typical family that moves from group to individual coverage with identical benefits, annual premiums will rise by more than $2,000.43 The biggest losers in the individual market are those who are less healthy or coping with a chronic illness. Two-thirds of respondents in a recent survey said they found it difficult or impossible to find affordable coverage in the individual market.

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  • Gerontogeriatric nursing groups knowledge and nursing practices derived from General Nursing, Geriatrics and Gerontology(3). Gerontogeriatric nursing is, in addition, a specific branch of nursing that delivers care to the elderly at all levels of prevention, i.e., from health promotion to rehabilitation. This nomenclature was selected because it is understood as being more comprehensive and adequate(4).

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  • Upon completion of this chapter you should understand: Reasons for economic success and a brief history of the U.S. economic system, legal forms of the organization and their respective sources of capital, the money cycle, contemporary financial techniques including total financial management and the team triangle approach to financial decision making, financial responsibilities as they relate to the constituents of an organization.

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  • Thomas Ahrens Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer in Accounting at the London School of Economics where he has been working since 1996. His research is mostly qualitative. It is broadly concerned with accounting and organisational process. Thomas has compared management accounting practices in contemporary British and German firms and studied the uses of performance measurement systems in a large U.K. restaurant chain. He has also written on comparative and case study research in accounting. Thomas’ latest research project is investigating performance measurement in British and German banks.

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  • This is a political history of Labour's use of the tax system from 1906 to 1979: an epilogue brings the story up to the present, surveying New Labour's tax policies and dilemmas. Richard Whiting's broad-ranging, lucid and readable study examines how Labour used tax to further its political aims of funding welfare, managing the economy, promoting fairness and achieving greater equality.

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  • OF all branches of economic science, that part which relates to money and credit has probably the longest history and the most extensive literature. The elementary truths of the Quantity Theory were established at a time when speculation on other types of economic problem had hardly yet begun. By the middle of the nineteenth century when, in the general theory of value, a satis- factory statical system had not yet been established, the pamphlet literature of money and banking was tackling, often with marked success, many of the subtler problems of economic dynamics.

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  • Many American history books begin with the year 1492 and the discovery of the Caribbean Islands by Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus (1451–1506). For the great civilizations of Mesoamerica and South America, though, 1492 proved to be the beginning of the end of their civilization. The products of thousands of years of history—the cities, the architecture, markets, governments, economic systems, legal systems, schools, books, holy shrines—even the daily prayers of the people—were about to be willfully eliminated by the conquering European nations.

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  • Accounting standards around the world have evolved over centuries of business and capital market development. In this process, accounting standards historically were designed to meet the needs of each nation’s capital markets. Those stan- dards that were found to work well in the legal, cultural, political and economic context of each nation became the “generally accepted accounting principles,” or GAAP, for that particular jurisdiction. Naturally, different norms in each nation led to different GAAPs in each nation.

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  • · Namibia is carrying out a phased testing and implementation of the SEEA approach to environmental accounting. It is focused on several key natural resource sectors, and is designed to answer such questions as how to allocate water among competing uses and how land degradation affects the productivity of rangeland. · The Netherlands routinely constructs the "National Accounting Matrix Including Environmental Accounts" (NAMEA), an extended form of the national accounts input/output matrix which tracks pollution emissions by economic sector.

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