The impact of inflation

Xem 1-20 trên 37 kết quả The impact of inflation
  • This paper studies the responses of residential property and equity prices, inflation and economic activity to monetary policy shocks in 17 countries, using data spanning 1986-2006. We estimate VARs for individual economies and panel VARs in which we distinguish between groups of countries on the basis of the characteristics of their financial systems. The results suggest that using monetary policy to offset asset price movements in order to guard against financial instability may have large effects on economic activity.

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  • The goal in this chapter is to introduce you to bonds. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Important bond features and types of bonds, cond values and yields and why they fluctuate, bond ratings and what they mean, the impact of inflation on interest rates, the term structure of interest rates and the determinants of bond yields.

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  • Chapter 6 introduces you to interest rates and bond valuation. In this chapter, you will learn: Know the important bond features and bond types, understand bond values and why they fluctuate, understand bond ratings and what they mean, understand the impact of inflation on interest rates, understand the term structure of interest rates and the determinants of bond yields.

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Short-run equilibrium, adjustment to long-run equilibrium, the impact of shifts in aggregate demand on output and inflation, short-run equilibrium inflation and output following an increase in aggregate demand, adjustment of short-run equilibrium inflation and output following an increase in aggregate demand, the impact of inflation shocks on output and inflation.

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  • To increase local capabilities to enable Africans to manage their pro- grams and projects themselves, AGETIPs are responsible for the process of design, contracting, and implementation of projects whose final ben- eficiaries are generally the municipalities or the public. The process in- cludes codesigning subprojects with local municipalities and communi- ties; publicizing contracts; contracting, supervising, and commissioning works; and paying suppliers. While remaining responsible for overall project management, AGETIPs contract out most services.

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  • I would like to extend my thanks to all those who contributed to this study. In addition to the research team, I would like to thank the PSE, the Capital Market Authority, the brokerage firms and the other experts we interviewed whose comments and ideas we benefited from. For the same reason, I am grateful to all the participants at the workshop during which the study was presented and discussed. Thanks also go to Dr. Basem Makhool, Dr. Atef Alawneh, and Dr. Sulaiman Abbadi for reviewing and refereeing the study. Last but not least, I want to extend my thanks...

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  • Chapter 8 - Inflation. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Define inflation and calculate the inflation rate using the consumer price index (CPI), explain the difference between relative price shifts and the overall inflation rate, calculate and show how incomes and wages can be adjusted for inflation, discuss the impact of unexpected and expected inflation.

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  • In this chapter, you will learn: Know the important bond features and bond types, understand bond values and why they fluctuate, understand bond ratings and what they mean, understand the impact of inflation on interest rates, understand the term structure of interest rates and the determinants of bond yields.

    ppt56p nomoney12 04-05-2017 0 0   Download

  • In this section we look at data concerning 10-year government bond yields. Although our main interest is the default risk, this presents only one channel through which fiscal policies can affect long-term yields. There are other channels operating through monetary-fiscal interaction, which should be reflected in the evolution of yields. Therefore we start our descriptive analysis in this section by looking at yields, forward rates and inflation expectations at a weekly frequency. Then we move to an analysis of interest rate swap spreads, at a weekly and daily frequency.

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  • At the time of the moratorium, the total outstanding balance was close to 6 bil- lion DEM. The events that followed had a major influence on the average bond hold- er’s psyche and risk preferences. The build-up of political tensions that led to the col- lapse of SFRY left Serbia and Montenegro united in an effort to continue the legacy of the previous country. However, with civil war on its borders, FRY was not setting economic development as its top priority. By 1992, FRY was politically and econom- ically isolated.

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  • The paper finds in a few cases a statistically significant negative relationship between some measures of central bank financial strength and inflation. Nevertheless, the results lack robustness with respect to the choice of alternative measures of financial strength and the econometric technique. At the same time, the relationship – if there is any – is found to be non-linear, with only substantial financial weakness being associated with higher inflation.

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  • Consumer-price inflation in the EU is projected to remain relatively high in 2012 (2.7%), inter alia due to the impact of fiscal measures, but is expected to abate gradually over the forecast horizon, averaging 2.0% and 1.8% in 2013 and 2014 respectively (see Graph I.2). Pronounced cross-country divergences will remain a defining feature of the outlook. They span across a number of dimensions – including financing conditions, the labour market situation and the need for, and advancement of, private and public-debt deleveraging.

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  • The impact of a rise in oil prices differs significantly across countries, and depends upon factors such as the oil (and gas) intensity of output, the speed of reaction of the wage-price system, the role of expectations2, the response of the monetary authorities, the export exposure to oil producing markets and the speed at which oil revenues are recycled back into the global trading system. In terms of inflation, the negative effects of higher oil prices tend to be felt less acutely in the Euro Area than the US as the Euro Area is...

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  • Most respondents knew that high inflation meant the cost of living was increasing, suggesting an awareness of simple economic terms. It appears that in most countries people were more likely to know the definition of inflation than know what impact it has on their spending power, but in Armenia considerably more people understood the time value of money than recognised the definition. The various diversification questions used in different countries proved to be challenging.

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  • ATP is Denmark‟s largest pension fund with total assets of more than EUR 66 billion. As of 31 December 2009 ATP‟s infrastructure investments equated to 1.8% of the total portfolio. With just below 3% committed. ATP does not have a target for its infrastructure investments but has an overall target of 25- 30% of its risk budget to inflation class. ATP Pension Fund has invested in renewable energy infrastructure and technology, such as solar wind and hydro, as well as emerging technologies, such as biofuels and biomass for a long time.

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  • Chapter 26 - Business cycles, unemployment, and inflation. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Describe the business cycle and its primary phases, illustrate how unemployment and inflation are measured, explain the types of unemployment and inflation and their various economic impacts.

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  • Chapter 10 - Business cycles, unemployment, and inflation. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Compare and contrast potential GDP and real GDP, define the unemployment rate and distinguish between the different types of unemployment, explain the tradeoff between unemployment and inflation, define recessions and discuss the impact of recessions on workers and businesses, list the possible causes of recession.

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  • Chapter 18 - Extending the analysis of aggregate supply. We will analyze how aggregate demand and supply change as we move from the short run to the long run. We will apply this model to cost-push inflation, demand-pull inflation, and economic growth. The Phillips curve is introduced along with the impact of taxes and aggregate supply and taxes and economic growth.

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  • Investor base: participation by different investors in the government bond market has grown more diversified. Of the various actors in this market, banks tend to invest in relatively shorter term bonds to match their short-term liability. Pension funds and insurance companies prefer hedging long-term inflation risks by investing more in inflation linked bonds. Non-residents concentrate their direct exposure to fixed rate instruments, but with maturity less than 3 years.

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  • The risk that one will outlive one’s money is best referred to as “longevity risk.” The traditional way that savers have managed this risk is by purchasing life annuities or by having annuitylike cash flow streams purchased for them through defined- benefit (DB) pension plans. (Social Security can also be understood, at least from the viewpoint of the recipient, as an inflation-indexed life annuity.) DB pension plans are declining in importance, however, and a great many workers do not have such a plan.

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