Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience
broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The au-
thor and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable
in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with
the standards accepted at the time of publication.
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) is a book which presents a set of standard terminology and guidelines for project management. The Fourth Edition (2008) was recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as an American National Standard (ANSI/PMI 99-001-2008) and by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers — IEEE 1490-2011.[
Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy
makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence
and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors,
particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/
National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council
held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.
Established in 1995, the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) is a state-led, national
coalition of personnel from the environmental regulatory agencies of some 40 states and the District
of Columbia; three federal agencies; tribes; and public and industry stakeholders. The organization is
devoted to reducing barriers to, and speeding interstate deployment of, better, more cost-effective,
innovative environmental techniques.
A fundamental element of sustainable development is environmental sustainability.
Hence, this series was created in 2007 to cover current and emerging issues
in order to promote debate and broaden the understanding of environmental
challenges as integral to achieving equitable and sustained economic growth. The
series will draw on analysis and practical experience from across the World Bank
and from client countries.
Over the last decade, advances in tools and technologies—sensor systems, analytic methods,
molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics—have provided opportunities for
improving the collection of exposure-science information leading to the potential for better human health
and ecosystem protection. Recognizing the need for a prospective examination of exposure science, the
Historic notification and hospitalization data were used to calculate annual rates of
campylobacteriosis in New Zealand during 1980–2009 for notifications and 1996–2009 for
hospitalizations. A detailed descriptive analysis was then undertaken to examine the
epidemiology of campylobacteriosis for the 12-year period 1997–2008 on the basis of notified
and hospitalized cases.
The globalization of human rights implies, too, the globalization of human responsibilities.
For individual human rights holders, there is the responsibility to act in ways that show
appropriate respect for the rights of fellow humans wherever they are located in the
global community of rights.
Secondly, the broader universe of pension funds may also be interested in these investments not so
much because they are green, but because they provide an attractive return (whether environmental issues
should be a considered within mainstream risk assessments by institutional investors is a topic beyond the
scope of this paper). Pension funds are looking for long-dated assets with inflation protection, a steady
yield and which have a low correction to the rest of their portfolio.
Ongoing monitoring and good data are the cornerstones of
effective efforts to improve water quality. Addressing water
quality challenges will mean building capacity and expertise
in developing countries and deploying real-time, low-cost,
rapid, and reliable field sampling tools, technologies, and
data-sharing and management institutions. Resources are
needed to build national and regional capacity to collect,
manage, and analyze water quality data.
Adequate facilities and resources must be available to supply proper housing, a consistent,
appropriate, and reliable source of feed and water, treatment for injured or sick birds, and
everything else necessary to ensure the well-being of the animals. Financial costs should not be
considered a reason for neglecting a bird obviously in distress or for failing to secure prompt and
appropriate medical treatment or other care when necessary.
This code has been prepared with a recognition of current practices.
Jurisdictional Uncertainty. This is a vaguely defined term that refers to weaknesses
in property rights and contract-enforcing institutions. The term was coined by Arida,
Bacha, and Lara-Resende (2004) who describe it as some form of anticreditor bias,
the risk of changing the value of contracts before or at the moment of their
execution, and the risk of an unfavorable interpretation of contracts in case of a court
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences is committed
to encouraging and supporting basic biomedical and behavioral
research in which scientists explore the unknown. Important
medical advances have grown from the pursuit of curiosity about
fundamental questions in biology, physics, and chemistry.1 For example:
n A scientist studying marine snails found a powerful
new drug for chronic pain.
n Studying how electricity affects microbes led to a
widely used cancer medicine.
In the recent past the interests of different groups concerned with health care
have focused on the use of medical technologies—their impacts on safety,
efficacy, and effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit; quality; and their
social, legal, and ethical implications. The sum of these varied interests is the
field of health care technology assessment.
The Council on Health Care Technology was created to promote the
development and application of technology assessment in health care and the
review of health care technologies for their appropriate use.
But in Africa, microfinance has caught on more slowly than
in other regions of the developing world. While it has made
some inroads, primarily in urban areas, most Africans, who
live off the land and in small towns and villages, have yet
to be reached. Until very recently, the cost of bringing
financial services – even microfinance services – to remote
parts of Africa has been prohibitive, and the logistics of
doing so daunting.
In April 2000, the National Marine Mammal Review Committee met in Ottawa to review the most recent information on the status of the northwest Atlantic harp seal population. Attending the meeting were scientists from four international research institutes, a non-governmental environmental group, two individuals from the seal harvesting sector, as well as a number of DFO scientists from across the country.
In recent years, Canada’s strategy has been to set its total allowable catch (TAC) based on an estimate of replacement yield.
Utilization of RCH services and their linkages with basic demographic parameters and
socioeconomic developmental factors have often been argued and highlighted in the theoretical
and empirical literature. The NPP-2000 also affirms the provision of quality RCH services and
an informed choice of contraception alongwith women empowerment characterized by
improvements in women's educational standards, working conditions and autonomy.
VN is relative endowed with multiform renewable energy (RE) resources which are distributed through- out the country. They can be exploited for production of energy to meet rapidly increasing energy demand as well as environmental protection....
European Union (EU) environmental legislation has developed over the last
30 years and comprises today some 300 legal acts and a large number of
other policy documents of relevance for EU environmental policy. Section
1.2.1 of this chapter gives a general introduction to the EU forms of legislation
and the principles of the EU environmental policy. The legislation related to
the environmental aspects of textile processes in general, primarily the
emissions to water and air, is discussed in sections 1.2 to 1.6....
Electrochemistry has been used extensively in the past three decades to
determine the chemical composition of environmental samples from the water
column, sediments, soils, biofilms, and microbial mats.