The interest rate margin

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  • The workshop participants included: (a) general managers and high-level staff of social funds; (b) representatives of central government institutions that oversee the operations of the funds; (c) representatives of municipal governments that interact with social funds in the selection and implementation of subprojects and of their regional associations; (d) representatives of nongov- ernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations that work with social funds; (e) staff of the World Bank and of other multilateral and bilateral development agencies that finance, design, a...

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  • Clearly, interest rate policy implemented by the Fed’s current operating procedures could not survive in this case. If the Fed persisted in implementing interest rate policy with its current procedures, the Fed would continually sell securities to withdraw reserves and currency. Reserves, for example, would be withdrawn to keep their marginal narrow liquidity services yield from falling below the interest opportunity cost represented by the federal funds rate target.

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  • The data allow us to focus on eight basic questions about the microfinance “industry”: Who are the lenders? How widespread is profitability? Are loans in fact repaid at the high rates advertised? Who are the customers? Why are interest rates so high? Are profits high enough to attract profit-maximizing investors? How important are subsidies? How robust are the financial data? The answers then take us back to reconsider the initial questions of subsidy, profit, and social impact in microfinance. Who are the lenders? The clash between Grameen Bank and...

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  • More sophisticated econometric procedures have been used to estimate the market’s reaction to Federal Reserve policy, focusing on the unanticipated element of the actions. Using a Vector Autoregression (VAR) tomodelmonetary policy, for example, Edelberg and Marshall (1996) found a large, highly significant response of bill rates to policy shocks, but only a small, marginally significant response of bond rates. Other examples of the VAR approach include Evans and Marshall (1998) and Mehra (1996).

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  • Chapter 10 - Basic macroeconomic relationships. This chapter introduces three basic macroeconomic relationships. First, the focus is on the income-consumption and income-saving relationships. Second, the relationship between the interest rate and investment is examined. Finally, the multiplier concept is developed, relating changes in spending to changes in output.

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  • From one of the most influential economists of the modern era, Keynes and his "General Theory" shaped economic thought and government policies for decades to come. Out of this magnum opus arose the Keynesian school of economics. Keynes argues that the level of employment in a modern economy was determined by three factors: the marginal propensity to consume (income that people chose to spend on goods and services), the marginal efficiency of capital (the rate used to see whether investments are worthy) and the rate of interest.

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  • Securities firm balance sheets primarily reflect securities portfolios and securities financing arrangements. For example, the stylised balance sheet included in Annex 2 suggests that the majority of assets for securities firms are fully collateralized receivables arising from securities borrowed and reverse repurchase transactions with other non-retail market participants. The next greatest asset category is securities owned by the firm at fair value, which includes positions related to derivative transactions.

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  • The observed market rate of interest is the sum of the utility discount factor (reflecting impatience) and the utility growth factor (reflecting diminishing marginal utility of consumption).

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  • In the next section we outline some theoretical and empirical results about the relationships between monetary policy, the ináation target of monetary authorities, the level of this target perceived by the public and the long term interest rates dynamics. In section 3, we present the works of Kozicki and Tinsley (1998, 2001a, 2001b) and we establish the interest of this model in our framework.

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  • The paper also outlines a number of principles for use by supervisory authorities when evaluating banks' interest rate risk management. This paper strongly endorses the principle that banks’ internal measurement systems should, wherever possible, form the foundation of the supervisory authorities’ measurement of and response to the level of interest rate risk.

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  • There are two key ways banks fund their lending activity to SMEs; through deposit taking from their customers and, where the lending requirements exceed the value of the deposit base, through borrowings from wholesale money markets. When providing Loans or Overdrafts to SME’s, banks tend to quote an interest rate made up of a ‘cost of funds’ using a market reference rate, plus a margin. With regard to the ‘cost of funds’ it is clear from the explanation below these reference rates no longer reflect the true cost of funds to the banks.

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  • A financial institution determines the interest rates it charges on its loans by evaluating its cost of funding (the interest it has to pay to borrow money from various sources), its operating expenses and a profit margin. Financial institutions fund their loans from a variety of sources, including consumer and corporate deposits and interbank borrowings. Since interest rates can vary significantly between financial institutions, consumers should compare the interest rates offered by lenders.

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  • Without access to basic financial services, Africans are at risk of remaining at the margins of economic opportunity with little hope of realizing their tremendous creative potential. In the past, most poor Africans relied on home- grown, often unreliable and exploitative traditional services in the form of deposit collectors and moneylenders. Now microfinance is a big part of the picture.

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  • This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 31 December 2008. IFRS 4 Insurance contracts was issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in March 2004.

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  • Under certain conditions, the Company may use options and futures on securities, indices and interest rates, as described in Section 3.2. "Sub-Fund Details" and Appendix 3 "Restrictions on the use of techniques and instruments" for the purpose of investment, hedging and efficient portfolio management. In addition, where appropriate, the Company may hedge market and currency risks using futures, options or forward foreign exchange contracts. Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk.

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  • This environment could change if the downward shift of yield curve continues. Anecdotal evidence suggests that institutional investors are becoming more sensitive to changes in financial market conditions and therefore are increasingly interested in higher-return generating assets and more sophisticated styles in fund management. Indeed, the fall in the short term interest rate since last August appears to have been gradually affecting investors’ behavior. Clients’ requests for daily liquidity have decreased at the margin. ...

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  • In this example, we considered six-month forward rates. We can consider forward rates that rule for different periods, for example 1-year, or 3-month or two-week forward rates. In the limit, as the period of the loan considered tends to zero, we arrive at the instantaneous forward rate. Instantaneous forward rates are a stylised concept that corresponds to the notion of continuous compounding, and are commonly used measures in financial markets.

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  • One strand in the recent academic literature seeks to explain the existence of different bank interest rates on loans and deposits on the basis of monopolistic competition in the banking sector. In this case, banks earn a positive profit margin because they can set the level of bank interest rates such that deposit rates are below the interbank rate and loan rates are above it. In addition, the bank faces costs in adjusting its interest rates and will take the pricing decision of competitors into account in order to preserve long-term customer relationships.

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  • Allocation of scarce resources; land, labour, capital, foreign exchange; present and future consumption, optimum use of taxes and subsidy. Public ownership and planning, relationship between plans and projects selection and investment programme; private sector projects, method of evaluation of private projects, social cost- benefit and switching values, uses and abuses of sensitivity analysis. Accounting prices for traded and non-traded goods, marginal social costs and marginal social benefits, financing of projects, impact of project outputs on production and consumption elsewhere.

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  • To put the profit values in perspective, we calculate profitability ratios. Rate of return on assets (ROA) is the farm operating profit (equal to net farm income plus interest expense less value of operator labor and management) divided by average total farm asset value (valued at current market value). Rate of return on assets is a measure of how much profit the farm business assets generated. The average 2005 dairy farm ROA (Market) was 3.2 percent, below 2004 value of 5.2 percent (Table 3). Return on equity tells a similar story.

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