The language of graphs

Xem 1-20 trên 122 kết quả The language of graphs
  • There was a gradual decline in sales. Sales declined gradually (noun usage) (verb usage) Enrollment increased by 4% in 1997. There was a 4% increase in enrollment in 1997. Immigration rose to 800,000 in 1999. Immigration rose by 20,000 in 1999. (to a point/number) (by increment) There was a 20% rise in immigration. (percentage)

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  • Transition-based dependency parsers are often forced to make attachment decisions at a point when only partial information about the relevant graph configuration is available. In this paper, we describe a model that takes into account complete structures as they become available to rescore the elements of a beam, combining the advantages of transition-based and graph-based approaches. We also propose an efficient implementation that allows for the use of sophisticated features and show that the completion model leads to a substantial increase in accuracy.

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  • Many books exist that are guides to academicw riting for native speakersT. here are also a number for non-native speakersO. f these,q uite a few deal with the use of graphs, tables and other visuals. However, they normally explain how to insert or use these visuals to make your work more interesting and easy to understand. They do not usually explain how to write about these visual aids. The primary purpose of this book is to help you with the \Writing Thsk I of the IELIS Academic test.

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  • You need to know some special vocabulary for graphs. In the IELTS exam, you have to write only 150 words, so show how much vocabulary you know. You don't need to repeat the same word!

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  • There has been an ongoing debate on how best to document a software system ever since the first software system was built. Some would have us writing natural language descriptions, some would have us prepare formal specifications, others would have us producing design documents and others would want us to describe the software thru test cases. There are even those who would have us do all four, writing natural language documents, writing formal specifications, producing standard design documents and producing interpretable test cases all in addition to developing and maintaining the code.

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  • Algorithms play the central role both in the science and practice of computing. Recognition of this fact has led to the appearance of a considerable number of textbooks on the subject. By and large, they follow one of two alternatives in presenting algorithms. One classifies algorithms according to a problem type. Such a book would have separate chapters on algorithms for sorting, searching, graphs, and so on. The advantage of this approach is that it allows an immediate comparison of, say, the efficiency of different algorithms for the same problem.

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  • As a professional computer software developer, I can tell you that some of the greatest programmers start with the simplest of hardware and the most fervent determination. Mastering a small computer system (such as the Texas Instruments graphing calculator) not only feels fantastic, but also teaches core programming concepts and solidifies ways of thinking that mediocre programmers seldom grasp. I have been in the TI graphing calculator community for well over a decade, as has Christopher (known among us as “Kerm Martian”).

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  • Consider a nancial network in which n nancial intermediaries, `banks' for short, are randomly linked together by their claims on each other. In the language of graph theory, each bank represents a node on the graph and the interbank exposures of bank i dene the links with other banks. These links are directed and weighted, reecting the fact that interbank exposures comprise assets as well as liabilities and that the size of these exposures is important for contagion analysis.

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  • The authors’ summaries in this issue of EASG cover book-length studies that appeared in 2006 or earlier. Most of the treatises and doctoral dissertations summarized are in fact available in book form. The titles of the summaries locate the universities of origin for interlibrary loans of typescript dissertations deposited there.

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  • This paper presents a prototype, not completely operational, that is intended to use c-graphs in the translation of assemblers. Firstly, the formalization of the structure and its principal notions (substructures, classes of substructures, order, etc.) are presented. Next section describes the prototype which is based on a Transformational System as well as on a rewriting system of c-graphs which constitutes the nodes of the Transformational System.

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  • Most previous graph-based parsing models increase decoding complexity when they use high-order features due to exact-inference decoding. In this paper, we present an approach to enriching high-order feature representations for graph-based dependency parsing models using a dependency language model and beam search. The dependency language model is built on a large-amount of additional autoparsed data that is processed by a baseline parser.

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  • Learning a semantic lexicon is often an important first step in building a system that learns to interpret the meaning of natural language. It is especially important in language grounding where the training data usually consist of language paired with an ambiguous perceptual context. Recent work by Chen and Mooney (2011) introduced a lexicon learning method that deals with ambiguous relational data by taking intersections of graphs.

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  • We demonstrate TextRank – a system for unsupervised extractive summarization that relies on the application of iterative graphbased ranking algorithms to graphs encoding the cohesive structure of a text. An important characteristic of the system is that it does not rely on any language-specific knowledge resources or any manually constructed training data, and thus it is highly portable to new languages or domains.

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  • This paper proposes the “Hierarchical Directed Acyclic Graph (HDAG) Kernel” for structured natural language data. The HDAG Kernel directly accepts several levels of both chunks and their relations, and then efficiently computes the weighed sum of the number of common attribute sequences of the HDAGs. We applied the proposed method to question classification and sentence alignment tasks to evaluate its performance as a similarity measure and a kernel function. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the HDAG Kernel is superior to other kernel functions and baseline methods. ...

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  • intermediate depencies between morphology, syntax and semantics. A strong, multidimensional formalism that can cope with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of language seems necessary. In t h i s chapter a graph grammar formalism based on the notions of r e l a t i o n a l graph grammars ( R a j l i c h 1975) and a t t r i b u t e d programmed graph grammars (Bunke 1982) is developed f o r parsing languages with configurational structure .

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  • In this paper, we present a computational method for transforming a s y n t a c t i c g r a p h , which represents all syntactic interpretations of a sentence, into a s e m a n t i c g r a p h which filters out certain interpretations, but also incorporates any remaining ambiguities. We argue that the resulting ambiguous graph, supported by an exclusion matrix, is a useful data structure for question answering and other semantic processing. Our research is based on the principle that ambiguity is an inherent aspect of natural...

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  • A framework for a structured representation of semantic knowledge (e.g. word-senses) has been defined at the IBM Scientific Center of Roma, as part of a project on Italian Text Understanding. This representation, based on the conceptual graphs formalism [SOW84], expresses deep knowledge (pragmatic) on word-senses. The knowledge base data structure is such as to provide easy access by the semantic verification algorithm. This paper discusses some important problem related to the definition of a semantic knowledge base, as depth versus generality, hierarchical ordering of concept types, etc.

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  • W e propose an apparently minor extension to Kay's (1985} notation for describing directed acyclic graphs (DAGs}. The proposed notation permits concise descriptions of phenomena which would otherwise be difficult to describe, without incurring significant extra computational overheads in the process of unification. W e illustrate the notation with examples from a categorial description of a fragment of English, and discuss the computational properties of unification of DAGs specified in this way. ...

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  • Substantial efforts have been made in order to cope with disjunctions in constraint based grammar formalisms (e.g. [Kasper, 1987; Maxwell and Kaplan, 1991; DSrre and Eisele, 1990].). This paper describes the roles of disjunctions and inheritance in the use of feature structures and their formal semantics. With the notion of contexts we abstract from the graph structure of feature structures and properly define the search space of alternatives.

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  • This paper shows first the problems raised by proper names in natural language processing. Second, it introduces the knowledge representation structure we use based on conceptual graphs. Then it explains the techniques which are used to process known and unknown proper names. At last, it gives the performance of the system and the further works we intend to deal with.

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