One of America’s greatest judges famously observed that ‘taxes are what
we pay for civilised society’, 1 and from the earliest times English men
and women were called on to pay for the costs of managing the state in
an orderly way, providing an infrastructure of good government and
defence. 2 As the eff ective government of a state depended to a great extent
on the condition of its fi nances, the state’s power to tax its subjects was
central to its relationship with them, and the law of tax its principal and
voluminous formal expression....
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In 1998, the income of English football clubs was in the region of £700 million.
Since 1990, clubs have spent £600 million in upgrading grounds. The net asset
value of the 92 clubs is around £200 million, rising to over £1 billion if the
players in whose contracts the clubs invest are regarded as assets. The current
Premier League TV deal alone is worth £670 million over five years
(Szymanski and Kuypers, 2000, p 1).
The first football club to be listed on the stock market was Tottenham
Hotspur, back in 1983, when Irving Scholar was chairman....
DURING THE SUMMER of 1973, with Watergate unfolding and Willie Mays redefining the phrase “stick a fork in him,” my father was wavering between a new motorcyle and a single season ticket for the Celtics. The IRS had just given him a significant income tax refund of either $200 (the figure Dad remembers) or $600 (the figure my mother remembers). They both agree on one thing: Mom threatened to leave him if he bought the motorcycle.
The evidence does suggest that high-income households take tax increases into account
in decisions about the timing of income and the form in which they receive income. For
example, research on capital gains demonstrates that people may plan when they sell an
asset if a pending law change will affect their taxes on income from the sale. Similarly,
changes in the difference in tax rates between household and corporate income have
been shown to produce shifts in the type of compensation taken by corporate executives
and business owners....
Despite some clear successes, many countries are still failing to implement the policy and
programme changes needed to improve access to affordable medicines. Although the
challenges faced differ from country to country, a common problem is a lack of techni-
cal capacity to link price data to local policy processes (and so determine the causes of
high prices and unexplained price variations) and to identify and prepare suitable lines of
Chapter 5 - Perfectly competitive supply. In our discussion of supply and demand in part 1, we asked you simply to assume the law of demand, which says that demand curves are downward-sloping. In chapter 5 we will see that this law is a simple consequence of the fact that people spend their limited incomes in rational ways.
In this chapter we explore the financial accounting and reporting standards for the effect of income taxes. The discussion defines and illustrates temporary differences, which are the basis for recognizing deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, as well as permanent differences, which have no deferred tax consequences. You will learn how to adjust deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities when tax laws or rates change. We also discuss accounting for operating loss carrybacks and carrryforwards and intraperiod tax allocation.
Pursuant to the 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, which was
amended and supplemented under Resolution No. 51/2001/QH10;
The National Assembly promulgates the Law on Personal Income Tax.
Article 1. Scope of regulation
This Law provides for personal income taxpayers, taxable incomes, incomes eligible for
personal income tax exemption or reduction, and personal income tax bases.
Article 2. Taxpayers
Vietnam has a vision to build a democratic, clean, strong and modernised civil
service. It promulgated the Ordinance of Cadre and Civil Servants in 1998,
revised it in 2000 and 2003 and recently promulgated the new Law on Cadre and
Civil Servants that will come into effect on January 2010. The PAR Master
Programme (20012010) also made efforts to improve the quality of the civil
service and civil servant management, with mixed success. ...
This book examines the coherent international tax regime that is embodied both in
the tax treaty network and in domestic laws, and the way it forms a signiﬁcant part of
international law, both treaty-based and customary. The practical implication is that
countries are not free to adopt any international tax rules they please, but rather operate
in the context of the regime, which changes in the same ways international law changes
The Social Insurance Institution was established in 1934 by means of an Ordinance
of the President of the Republic of Poland of 24 October 1934 on the amendment of the Law of
28 March 1933 on social insurance. In accordance with the Ordinance, 5 insurance institutions
have been merged (Social Insurance Chamber, Sickness Insurance Institution, Accident Insur-
ance Institution, White-Collar Employees’ Insurance Institution, Blue-Collar Workers’ Insurance
This video series introducing you to ﬁnancial statement analysis is based on the dozens of training seminars I have given to credit industry groups organized by Dun & Bradstreet, the National Association of Credit Management and Riemer Reporting Services. It is applicable to anyone wanting
The U.K., just like the U.S., is in the fortunate situation that it publishes the statistics on what individual
households own and owe. By having these published for a number of years one can deduce what individual
households earn and save and how effective such savings have been in bringing about a financial return and
a real economic growth return. In the U.S such data are published on a quarterly basis, in the U.K on an
Only in combining the study of incomes with the use of such incomes can one reach some conclusions on
Maize in Ghana is extensively traded. Miracle (1966)
estimated that in the mid-1960s, fully one-third of Ghana’s
maize crop was being marketed—at the time an unusually
high proportion for a subsistence crop in sub-Saharan
Africa. The proportion has increased over the years with
the rise of commercial farming. Today, at least half of the
national maize crop is believed to enter the market
(GGDP 1991; Alderman 1991).
Economic access includes both the use of productive land and
other natural resources to directly produce food and to gener-
ate income as well as functioning distribution, processing and
market systems that can move food from the site of production
to where it is demanded. Thus, the existing ability to individually
or communally cultivate land (on the basis of ownership or other
form of tenure) must be protected.
CIRCULAR No. 84/2008/TT-BTC OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2008, GUIDING THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF A NUMBER OF ARTICLES OF THE LAW ON PERSONAL INCOME
TAX AND GUIDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT’S DECREE No.
100/2008/ND-CP OF SEPTEMBER 8, 2008, DETAILING A NUMBER OF ARTICLES OF THE
LAW ON PERSONAL INCOME TAX
Your market-leading BPP books, course materials and e-learning materials do not write and update
themselves. People write them: on their own behalf or as employees of an organisation that invests in this
activity. Copyright law protects their livelihoods. It does so by creating rights over the use of the content.
Breach of copyright is a form of theft – as well as being a criminal offence in some jurisdictions, it is
potentially a serious breach of professional ethics.
While the SEBI issued a further circular
in 2010 stating that a consolidation or
merger should not be seen as a change in
the fundamental attributes of the surviving
schemes if some conditions are met, the
absence of an income-tax neutrality and the
STT levy are dampeners which should be
removed. It may be noted that tax laws do
provide for such neutrality to shareholders in
case of merger of companies.
The IDB’s conclusion is that funds really are not important generators
of employment or income. Most of the jobs created were temporary. Most
of the local employment or virtually all of the local employment was for
unskilled labor at wages equal to or below the minimum wage in the
region, not an above-poverty wage. The total expenditure of funds was
not sufficient to move people out of poverty. Some part of that total ex-
penditure went to material and to skilled labor that came in with the
contractors from outside the poor communities....