Historically, the law did not involve itself too much in the regulation of
marriage. An individual was free to ‘marry’ merely by the exchange of vows, or
by the act of sexual intercourse with their partner. This lack of legal regulation
led to the term ‘common law wife’, which is still in use today, although having
little, if any, legality or rights attached to it. The law did, however, start to
become involved in marriage in the 18th century, and now legislation provides
the rules surrounding the process of marriage.
"A correspondent asks for a good book describing the female generative organs anatomically, physiologically
and pathologically, treating also of childbirth, written in language easily understood by a layman. He desires
to give copies to some of his young women patients. The editor regrets there is no satisfactory book on the
subject although there is great need for one."
It is a lamentable fact that the majority of women and girls are ignorant of the structure of their most
Contraceptive use accounts for a substantial portion of the variation in
observed fertility rates (others include age of marriage, abortion rates, post-
partum amenorrhea and abstinence, and occurrence of marital separations).
Although there have been dramatic increases in the use of family planning
services, unmet need for family planning remains very high in low-prevalence
The best age at which to marry--Incompatibility of temperament--A happy marriage need not be a successful
one--The evils of early marriage--The wedding night, its medical aspect--The honeymoon--When marital
relations are painful--Times when marital relations should be suspended--The first weeks and months of
wifehood--The formative period--A true marriage--A wife's true position in the household--Only 5% of happy
marriages--Period of adaptation--Differences of opinion--Differences of principle--The attainment of
success--Arguing trifles--You must know what you want--The right kind of wife--...
The experience of breast cancer can also create challenges for a marriage or signif-
icant relationship. Difficulties include communication problems, difficulty coping and
sexual dysfunction (one study found that approximately 50% of women with cancer had
at least one diagnosed sexual dysfunction during the posttreatment year) (Anderson,Ander-
son, & DeProsse, 1989). However, research suggests that when marriages are strong
before the development of breast cancer, the disease does not usually disrupt the relation-
ship, and may result in an even closer relationship (Oktay & Walter, 1991).
More recently, Cox and Fisher (2009) analyzed the titles of contemporary romance
novels to determine if their popularity might be related to evolutionary themes that would
be expected to have widespread appeal when it comes to some of the unique and recurrent
reproductive issues that women confront. The five most common words featured in
romance novel titles were love, bride, baby, man, and marriage, in that order. Common
themes extracted from these titles included commitment, reproduction, masculine/high
ranking suitors, and resources.
Adolescents, currently about 20 percent of the world’s population, have special
reproductive health concerns and face risks related to early sexual experience,
marriage and fertility. A rise in the age of marriage globally has contributed to
declines in adolescent fertility. However, up to 50 percent of women in some
countries still marry or enter a union by age 18, with this figure rising to 70 per-
cent by age 20. The proportion of young women married or in union by age 20 is
closely linked to adolescent fertility and exposure to reproductive health risks....
given high levels of illiteracy and isolation, the level
of knowledge about health risks related to pregnancy
and childbirth are low and hardly informed by modern
medical practices. there is poor demand for, and
mistrust of, preventive services such as vaccination and
birth spacing. Poverty, illiteracy and the low value placed
on women’s health, lack of female decision-making
power over their own health, and social and cultural
norms associated with reproduction adversely affect
decisions to seek health care and positive outcomes for
mother and child.
The core of this chapter is a discussion of EITC-related behavioral issues
and research. Section 3.3 provides EITC program statistics. As would be
expected with a program that has more than tripled in size (in real dollars)
in the 1990s, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to the EITC
in recent years. In section 3.4, we outline the conceptual underpinnings of
much of this recent work and discuss EITC participation and compliance,
its eﬀects on labor force participation and hours of work, marriage and fer-
tility, skill formation, and consumption.
As a non-governmental organization in official relations with WHO, IACAPAP
received an invitation from the director-general of the WHO to appoint
representatives to attend the 130th session of the executive board, which was
held from 16 to 23 January 2012. A close scrutiny revealed a heavily packed
child and adolescent mental health agenda. Apart from the global burden of
mental disorders, there were other items very relevant to CAMH.