The molecular level

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  • Chapter 20 describes evolution at the molecular level. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: The origin of life on earth, the evolution of genomes, the organization of genomes, a comprehensive example: rapid evolution in the immune response and in HIV.

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  • Computational chemistry and molecular modeling is a fast emerging area which is used for the modeling and simulation of small chemical and biological systems in order to understand and predict their behavior at the molecular level. It has a wide range of applications in various disciplines of engineering sciences, such as materials science, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, etc.

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  • Sco proteins are present in all types of organisms, including the vast major-ity of eukaryotes and many prokaryotes. It is well established that Sco pro-teins in eukaryotes are involved in the assembly of the CuAcofactor of mitochondrial cytochromecoxidase; however their precise role in this pro-cess has not yet been elucidated at the molecular level.

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  • The development and rapid implementation of molecular genotyping methods have revolutionized the possibility for differentiation and classification of microorganisms at the subspecies level. Investigation of the species diversity is required to determine molecular relatedness of isolates for epidemiological studies. Methods for molecular epidemiology of microorganisms must be highly reproducible and provide effective discrimination of epidemiologically unrelated strains.

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  • Over the last three decades, knowledge on the molecular biology of human cancers has vastly expanded. A host of genes and proteins involved in cancer development and progression have been defined and many mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and even tissue level have been, at least partly, elucidated. Insights have also been gained into the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis by chemical, physical, and biological agents and into inherited susceptibility to cancer. Accordingly, Part I of the book presents many of the molecules and mechanisms generally important in human cancers.

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  • A suite of emerging techniques, known collectively as “molecular imaging,” now offer scientists an unprecedented opportunity to identify, follow, and quantify biologic processes at the cellular level with molecular specificity in intact organisms. For instance, it is now possible to evaluate, with imaging, the distribution, magnitude, and timing of gene expression in genetically altered animals (1–3).

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  • Nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics are three new disciplines that will contribute to the rapid development of functional foods. Bioinformatics is a new tool that uses computer database technology to integrate data from multiple, and sometimes disparate, disciplines. Already these disciplines and tools have improved our understanding of food science and human nutrition. Discoveries in genetics make it possible to understand the effects of nutrients in processes at the molecular level in the body and also the variable effects of dietary components on each individual.

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  • There is a growing body of evidence which demonstrates that following a diet that complies with the Dietary Guidelines may reduce the risk of chronic disease. Recently, it was reported that dietary patterns consistent with recommended dietary guidance were associated with a lower risk of mortality among individuals age 45 years and older in the United States.

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  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), via its guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A) recep-tor and intracellular guanosine 3¢,5¢-cyclic monophosphate production, is critically involved in the regulation of blood pressure. In patients with chronic heart failure, the plasma levels of ANP are increased, but the car-diovascular actions are severely blunted, indicating a receptor or postrecep-tor defect.

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  • The advent of cancer therapy with the use of varous particle beams requires full understanding of radiation interactions with tumours and other materials for its optimal perfomance. Relevant knowledge in this respect comes from physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and related technologies. A basic item of required Knowledge are the physical data that characterize the earliest phase of radiation interactions on the molecular level, which sets a stage for subsequent chemical and biological effects including the control of cancer.

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  • The synthetic immunomodulator muramyl dipeptide (MDP) has been shown to induce, in vivo, mitochondrial proton leak. In the present work, we extended these findings to the cellular level and confirmed the effects of MDPin vitro on murine macrophages.

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  • The increasing number of chromosomal rearrangements involving the humanMLLgene, in combination with differences in clinical behavior and outcome for MLL-rearranged leukemia patients, makes it necessary to reflect on the cancer mechanism and to discuss potential therapeutic strate-gies. To date, 64 different translocations have been identified at the molecular level.

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  • Each performance assessment of competence must be accompanied by an explicit criteria for determining whether or not a given learner has or has not attained the required level of performance to be considered “competent.” These criteria or performance standards are not determined by the performance of other learners (i.e., not graded on a „curve‟) but by the expert judgment of practitioners and educators in the field. Thus, it is desirable that ALL learners will achieve “competence” after training. ...

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  • Osmotic homeostasis is a fundamental requirement for life. In general, the effector mechanisms that mediate cellular and extracellular osmoregulation in animals are reasonably well defined. However, at the molecular level, little is known about how animals detect osmotic and ionic perturbations and transduce them into regulatory responses.

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  • Lack of functional Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is the pri-mary cause of the Fragile-mental retardation syndrome in humans. In most cases, the disease results from transcriptional silencing of fragile mental retardation gene 1, fmr1, which encodes FMRP. However, a single mis-sense mutation (I304N) in the second KH domain of FMRP gives rise to a particularly severe case of Fragile X syndrome.

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  • PKR is an interferon-induced serine-threonine protein kinase that plays an important role in the mediation of the antiviral and antiproliferative actions of interferons. PKR is present at low basal levels in cells and its expression is induced at the transcriptional level by interferons. PKR’s kin-ase activity stays latent until it binds to its activator. In the case of virally infected cells, double-stranded (ds) RNA serves as PKR’s activator.

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  • The exocyclic hydroxymethyl group of the -D-1-amino-1-deoxyglucopyranose can rotate around the carbon-carbon bond. Potential energy surface for this rotation has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemical methods. Relevant stationary points, including for the first time rotational transition states have been characterized by full geometry optimization using basis sets 6-31G(d) and 6-31G(2d,lp). There is a total of six stationary points along the hydroxymethyl rotational surface, including three minima and three transition states were identified.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.[35] This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.

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  • The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).

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