People are starting to realize that it is a complex subject, worthy of further study.
Design patterns have been used in programming for years. They were first formally documented
in Design Patterns by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides
(affectionately known as the Gang of Four) and have been applied to countless object-oriented
languages. Part of the appeal of design patterns is that they can be used uniformly over many
different languages and syntaxes.
Welcome to MapReduce Design Patterns! This book will be unique in some ways and
familiar in others. First and foremost, this book is obviously about design patterns, which
are templates or general guides to solving problems. We took a look at other design
patterns books that have been written in the past as inspiration, particularly Design
Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, by Gamma et al. (1995), which
is commonly referred to as “The Gang of Four” book. For each pattern, you’ll see a
template that we reuse over and over that we loosely based off of their book.
Design patterns are reusable solutions to commonly occurring problems in software
design. They are both exciting and a fascinating topic to explore in any programming
One reason for this is that they help us build upon the combined experience of many
developers that came before us and ensure we structure our code in an optimized way,
meeting the needs of problems we're attempting to solve.
Design patterns also provide us a common vocabulary to describe solutions.
This book isn't an introduction to object-oriented technology or design. Many
books already do a good job of that. This book assumes you are reasonably proficient
in at least one object-oriented programming language, and you should have some
experience in object-oriented design as well. You definitely shouldn't have to
rush to the nearest dictionary the moment we mention "types" and "polymorphism,"
or "interface" as opposed to "implementation” inheritance.
The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Introduction to patterns, the abstraction? Occurrence pattern, the general hierarchy pattern, the player? Role pattern, the singleton pattern, the observer pattern, the delegation pattern, the adapter pattern,... Inviting you refer.
This paper explores techniques to take advantage of the fundamental difference in structure between hidden Markov models (HMM) and hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM). The HHMM structure allows repeated parts of the model to be merged together. A merged model takes advantage of the recurring patterns within the hierarchy, and the clusters that exist in some sequences of observations, in order to increase the extraction accuracy.
Mining bilingual data (including bilingual sentences and terms1) from the Web can benefit many NLP applications, such as machine translation and cross language information retrieval. In this paper, based on the observation that bilingual data in many web pages appear collectively following similar patterns, an adaptive pattern-based bilingual data mining method is proposed.
Recent advances in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) offer a significant new approach to studying semantic representations in humans by making it possible to directly observe brain activity while people comprehend words and sentences. In this study, we investigate how humans comprehend adjective-noun phrases (e.g. strong dog) while their neural activity is recorded. Classification analysis shows that the distributed pattern of neural activity contains sufficient signal to decode differences among phrases. ...
Students should note that Congress generally prohibits the use of appropriated funds
to employ non-citizens within the United States. That restriction is discussed on the USAJobs
Web site. Students who are not U.S. citizens are eligible for the student observer program.
However, they should recognize that they are generally not eligible to be hired as employees
We have a limited number of slots and cannot hire all of the students who would be
successful interns. Students are welcome to decline our offers.
Cimate change is one of the most important global environmental
problems facing the world today. Evidence of a
changing climate is all around us, from rising sea level to
retreating mountain glaciers, melting Arctic sea ice, lengthening
growing seasons, shifting animal migration patterns, and other
changes. Such changes are already having adverse impacts on people’s
well-being, as climate change amplifies the effects of other
environmental and socioeconomic changes and problems and produces
new effects of its own.
he Theory of the Gene. The book summarizes theoretical conclusions that Morgan has drawn from more than fifteen years of empirical work. The geneticist had initially set out to challenge Mendel’s principles of heredity, but he writes that his work on the chromosomal transmission of genetic characteristics in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has instead confirmed them. His studies have, in addition, begun to identify the physiological bases of observed patterns of genetic inheritance.
A fundamental approach in signal processing is to design a statistical generative model of the observed signals. The components in the generative model then give a representation of the data. Such a representation can then be used in such tasks as compression, denoising, and pattern recognition. This approach is also useful from a neuroscientiﬁc viewpoint, for modeling the properties of neurons in primary sensory areas. In this chapter, we consider a certain class of widely used signals, which we call natural images....
Patterns in Species Richness
Why the number of species varies from place to place, and from time to time, are questions that present themselves not only to ecologists but to anybody who observes and ponders the natural world. They are interesting questions in their own right .
Monetary Policy , the Banking System, and Short -term Money Instrusments Measuring market concentration
I define local housing markets as Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Census
Bureau approximations of local housing markets defined by observed commuting patterns.35
The SAT data that I use to measure student outcomes are taken from the early 1990s.
Consequently, I use 1990 MSA definitions and draw demographic characteristics of each
MSA from the 1990 Census.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADER/FOLLOWER CONGRUENCE AND FOLLOWER COMMITMENT There are three plausible explanations for the pattern of findings presented here.
First, it may be that school and district policies are not responsible for a large share of the
extant across-school variation in student performance. We would not then expect to
observe effectiveness sorting, regardless of its extent, in the distribution of student SAT
scores. Second, the number of school districts may not capture variation in parents ability
to exercise Tiebout choice....
APPLICATIONS OF ICA
Independent Component Analysis. Aapo Hyv¨ rinen, Juha Karhunen, Erkki Oja a Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0-471-40540-X (Hardback); 0-471-22131-7 (Electronic)
Feature Extraction by ICA
A fundamental approach in signal processing is to design a statistical generative model of the observed signals. The components in the generative model then give a representation of the data. Such a representation can then be used in such tasks as compression, denoising, and pattern recognition.
The Ecology of Landscapes
Imagine taking a ﬂight across North America on a clear day—from, say, New York to Vancouver—and describing the patterns you observe on the land below. After lifting off, you would ﬂy over industrial and residential landscapes crisscrossed by numerous roads and broken up by the occasional
THE USE OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING TECHNIQUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY Finally, it may be that the sorts of policies that I call school
effectiveness, those not dependent on the peer group, are relatively unimportant
determinants of student outcomes (or that they do not vary substantially across schools), and
thus that effectiveness sorting and differences in average effectiveness across markets are not
observable in the pattern of average SAT scores.
We view this increasing inverse correlation ofmotion and shot length as an amplifying
effect. That is, short shots likely increase viewer response to ﬁlms and ﬁlm segments, forcing
observer eye movements to quickly reevaluate each new visual depiction and increasing
heart rate and other bodily responses (Carruthers and Taggart 1973). Addingmoremotion
to these short shots is likely to increase viewer response all the more.We suggest that this
increasing correlationmay help to couple attention to broader physiological responses.
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