The physiological mechanism

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  • Biomedical engineering is a discipline that is multidisciplinary by definition. The days when medicine was left to the physicians, and engineering was left to the engineers, seem to have passed us by. I have searched for an undergraduate/graduate level biomedical fluid mechanics textbook since I began teaching at Rose-Hulman in 1987. I looked for, but never found, a book that combined the physiology of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems with engineering of fluid mechanics and hematology to my satisfaction, so I agreed to write a monograph.

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  • THE title of the present work is in itself a sufficiently clear indication of the contents. In it, the attempt is made to show the connexion between two sciences whose subject−matters are closely interrelated, but which have, for the most part, followed wholly divergent paths. Physiology and psychology cover, between them, the field of vital phenomena; they deal with the facts of life at large, and in particular with the facts of human life.

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  • It is generally accepted that enteral feeding is preferable to parenteral feeding for critically ill patients, since it reduces mortality, it decreases the number of complications and of course it is much cheaper than parenteral nutrition (Box 1.1). However, achieving targets for feeding remains problematic since delayed gastric emptying, common in such patients, can be a cause of feeding cessation. This article discusses the physiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying, the ways in which it can be assessed, and what can be done to remedy matters....

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  • Although scholarly research has been lavished on several individual aspects of Augustine's views on the nature and activities of the mind and soul, it will be granted that no substantial monograph has been devoted to a general study of the topic since the pioneering work of Ferraz in the mid-nineteenth century. The main emphasis in the present work is on the analysis and elucidation of Augustine's arguments, particularly his more intricate and obscure ones.

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  • Physiology plays a major role in the scientific foundation of medicine and other subjects related to human health and physical performance. Pharmacology is the science which deals with the effects of drugs on living systems and their use in the treatment of disease. This book is designed to enhance students’ understanding of physiology and pharmacology via a series of case studies involving human disease and its treatment. Traditional university teaching methods focus on informing students in terms of physiological and pharmacological theory.

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  • A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.

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  • Arterial CO2 tension is a powerful modulator of cerebral vascular calibre, CBF and ICP (12-15.) While the mechanisms are incompletely understood, CO2 relaxes pial arterioles by interactions between the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, pericytes, adjacent neurons and glial cells. Studies supported that cerebral vessels are sensitive to changes in extracellular pH, rather than a direct response to CO2 or bicarbonate. In the limits of physiological PaCO2, 20-60 mmHg, the relationship between PaCO2 and CBF is linear.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • For writers of technical books, there can be no better piece of advice. Around the time of writing the first edition – about a decade ago – there were very few monographs on this subject: today, there are possibly no less than 20. Based on critical inputs, this edition stands thoroughly revamped. New chapters on ventilator waveforms, airway humidification, and aerosol therapy in the ICU now find a place. Novel software-based modes of ventilation have been included. Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been separated into a new chapter.

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  • Nutritional Biochemistry takes a scientific approach to nutrition. It covers not just "whats"--nutritional requirements--but why they are required for human health, by describing their function at the cellular and molecular level. Each case study either leads to a subsequent discovery or enables an understanding of the physiological mechanisms of action of various nutrition-related processes. The text is "picture-oriented" and the commentary is directed towards explaining graphs, figures, and tables. ...

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  • The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).

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  • The historical background of probiotics can be traced back to when the first definition of probiotic bacteria was given by Russian scientist Elie Metchnikoff who stated that probiotics are considered to exert a beneficial effect on the host. This was confirmed later on by an official statement by FAO/WHO. In their reviews, two group of investigators Matur et al. and Boaventura et al., presented the impact of probiotics on the physiology of the GIT and the underlying mechanism of action of this microflora and the benefits derived with the use of probiotics in human and animal nutrition.

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  • While it has been demonstrated that these materials have good sensitivity to polar VOCs, such as alcohols and acetone, 11,12 their rather poor response to nonpolar analytes has been viewed as a major drawback. In this report, we explored two ways to improve the sensor performance of regioregular polythiophene. The first approach is to add a second polymer at the end of the polythiophene chain to form a block copolymer. This second polymer interacts with the analytes in different ways, thus adding another dimensionality to the sensing response of the material.

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  • The projected CO2 concentration may reach 850 ppm by the end of the 21st century (Nakicenovic & Swart, 2000), which is about triple of the pre-industrial concentration level (280 ppm). The global emission scenario B2 describes a world with intermediate population and economic growth, emphasizing local solutions to economic, social, and environmental sustainability.

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  • All estimates in this report are based on samples of 100 cases or more. Estimates are not shown for certain race groups, nor for children living with no employed adults, because these samples were too small. The tables in this report show estimated percentages of Wisconsin residents based on survey responses. These estimates should not be treated as precise results because they are derived from a sample. A 95 percent confidence interval (+) is printed in a column next to each percentage estimate; this means that 95 percent of similar surveys would obtain an estimate within...

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  • This interest rate configuration also has implications for households deciding on the maturity of their mortgage financing. When short-term rates are low and deemed unlikely to rise, households shorten the maturity of their borrowing, often counting on being able to switch to long-term mortgages when they feel interest rates may rise. As households switch, banks dependent on short-term funding have to hedge their new interest rate exposures.

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  • The realisation of such a marketing strategy requires not only the existence of a he t- erogeneous consumer goods market, but also the possibility to identify market seg- ments which are internally homogeneous and externally heterogeneous with regard to the product related needs and wants of their members.

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  • Gabo, however, used a new system in which he employed a ‘stereometric cube.” This schematic design involved removal of four of the six sides of the cube, while retaining the top and the bottom, and replacing the rejected planes with two internal, interlocking diagonals. Thus the illusion of solid mass within the cube could be destroyed, allowing the interior space to appear open and free. After leaving Russia (about 1915), Gabo joined his brother and fellow sculptor Antoine Pevsner in Norway.

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  • Over the past 40 years there has been dramatic improvement in outcome from septic shock in children, with mortality reducing from 97% in the 1960s, 60% in the 1980s, to 9% in 1999. Changes in clinical practice have been based on case series, cohort studies and physiological experiments, rather than on evidence from randomised controlled trials. 6 There have also been significant changes to the organisation and delivery of health care, particularly in the provision of resuscitation and intensive care that have been associated with reduced mortality.

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  • While some people speculate that we keep too much, we are actually frustrated that cost or copyright gets in the way of keeping absolutely everything that could be useful. As we can’t predict when some item (e.g., an old bill, conference announcement page, attendee list, business card, or scribbled post-it note) will be required, the easiest and safest thing is to simply keep it all. Everything. Many people have been taught to process and file incoming items – with Memex, the only option is to process or ignore incoming items, leaving an item such as an email that crosses...

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