The principle of insurance

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  • Vice President/Publisher Associate Publisher Associate Editor Senior Production Editor Executive Marketing Manager Creative Director Senior Designer Production Management Services Editorial Assistant Senior Media Editor Cover Photo Cover Design Bicentennial Logo Design Don Fowley Judith Joseph Brian Kamins Valerie A. Vargas Amy Scholz Harry Nolan Kevin Murphy Aptara, Corp. Sarah Vernon Allison Morris c Brian Baley/Getty Images, Inc. David Levy Richard J. Pacifico This book was set in 10/12 Cheltenham Light by Aptara, Corp. and printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons, Inc.

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  • Financial and insurance markets always operate under various types of uncertainties that can affect nancial positions of companies and individuals. In nancial and insurance theories these uncertainties are usually referred to as risks. Given certain states of the market, and the economy in general, one can talk about risk exposure. Any economic activities of individuals, companies and public establishments aiming for wealth accumulation assume studying risk exposure. The sequence of the corresponding actions over some period of time forms the process of risk management.

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  • Monte Carlo methods are ubiquitous in applications in the finance and insurance industry. They are often the only accessible tool for financial engineers and actuaries when it comes to complicated price or risk computations, in particular for those that are based on many underlyings. However, as they tend to be slow, it is very important to have a big tool box for speeding them up or – equivalently – for increasing their accuracy. Further, recent years have seen a lot of developments in Monte Carlo methods with a high potential for success in applications.

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  • The second model of social funds is a part of a ministry, for example, the Bolivia fund or FOSIS in Chile, which are at the second stage. They have more formal agreements with the ministries, they lay less em- phasis on emergency procurement, and civil service rules are followed more closely. Then there are the larger funds in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico. These are usually large umbrella institutions. They have no autonomy. They are financed from the national budget. They implement or coordinate many social programs with the objective of reaching the poorest....

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  • The American health care system is challenged on many fronts. Every day, there are reports of medical errors and patient safety concerns. The nation struggles to provide care for the 15% of the population without health insurance. Costs continue to grow two to three times faster than the cost of living. Consumers leave their costly and risky encounters with less and less satisfaction that they have received the value they feel they deserve and desire.

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  • The careful application of the principles of soil treatment discussed in the preceding chapters will leave the soil in good condition for sowing, either in the fall or spring. Nevertheless, though proper dry-farming insures a first-class seed-bed, the problem of sowing is one of the most difficult in the successful production of crops without irrigation. This is chiefly due to the difficulty of choosing, under somewhat rainless conditions, a time for sowing that will insure rapid and complete germination and the establishmcnt of a root system capable of producing good plants.

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  • The law creates opportunities for better access to affordable care. In addition to features like letting a young adult stay on their parents’ plan until the age of 26 if they can’t get coverage through work, the law establishes new, competitive marketplaces in each State called Affordable Insurance Exchanges. In 2014, families and small business owners will be able to shop in the Exchanges where they will have access to the same kinds of private insurance choices as Members of Congress....

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  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Convey important facts about rising health care costs in the United States, relate the economic implications of rising health care costs, discuss the problem of limited access to health care for those without insurance, list the demand and supply factors explaining rising health care costs, summarize the goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the major changes that it institutes.

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  • In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Private insurance institutions were invented after fire of London 1666, role of discovery of probability theory in this invention, the extension through time of insurance practice into increasingly more realms of human risk, modern insurance companies and their regulators.

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  • In everyday life we are often forced to make decisions involving risks and perceived opportunities. The consequences of our decisions are affected by the outcomes of random variables that are to various degrees beyond our control. Such decision problems arise, for instance, in financial and insurance markets.

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  • The five instances of insurance fraud reflected in Table 10 resulted from individu- als who supplied fraudulent information on applications for term life policies. As set forth in FinCEN regulations, 22 an insurance company is not required to report in- stances of suspected insurance fraud unless the company has reason to believe that the false or fraudulent submission of information relates to money laundering or terrorist financing.

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  • To examine how financial markets such as bond, stock and foreign exchange markets work To examine how financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies work To examine the role of money in the economy

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  • We would like to know whether you feel there are areas that we should review, and whether you think a statutory insurance code is desirable. In Part 4 of this paper we have asked you to list those areas you think we should review, and to rank them in order of importance. Your responses will be considered by the Commissioners before they determine the scope of this project in the light of the resources available to us.

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  • We pay the reasonable cost of towing your car to the nearest repairer or place of safety if it is damaged and cannot be safely driven. The amount we will pay under this benefit will depend on where the accident takes place and what transport options are available. The Just Car Lifetime Repair Guarantee The quality of the workmanship and the materials we authorise in the repair of your car will be guaranteed for the life of the car. See pages 14 for details. We cover your replacement car If you replace your car with another car, we will insure the replacement car from...

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  • The discussions indicated that while insurance service liberalization and globalization can be beneficial, they have different impacts on developed and developing countries.

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  • Firms obviously choose to insure risk-averse workers when the premium is fair. They may choose to do so even if the premium is slightly higher than the expected cost. Nevertheless, if a firm’s expected health cost is significantly lower than the premium, it may choose not to offer insurance to workers. As we have just observed, small firms have higher variances in health costs. Hence, relative to large firms, more small firms will have expected costs that are significantly below the offered premium, and they choose not to offer insurance to workers.

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  • The House Agriculture Committee held hearings in spring 2010 to review agricultural policy ahead of the next farm bill debate. Comments on crops insurance surfaced as farmers, academics, other panelists, and members discussed the farm safety net and the role of crop insurance. Previously, in spring 2009, the Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management of the House Agriculture Committee held a hearing to receive input on the crop insurance program from farmers.

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  • The “Cost of Health Insurance” continues as the number one small-business problem, a posi- tion it has held for 25 years. The number one ranking is reflected in all but nine of the 50 sub-categories of businesses analyzed in this survey. Four of the nine defectors, including agriculture and transportation/warehousing, rank Energy Costs, except Electricity as their number one problem. The percent of small-business owners who cite the “Cost of Health Insurance” as critical fell slightly from 56 percent in 2008 to 52 percent in 2012.

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  • Federal and state governments have largely failed in their attempts to lower the cost of health insurance or even slow its rate of growth. The hotly debated Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), commonly called Obamacare, was signed into law in March 2010, and was the most aggressive effort to reform the healthcare system ever. But as with most health reform efforts, it failed to address the fundamental causes of rising healthcare costs while opting to focus on coverage.

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  • Programs written using a declarative language specify the properties that have to be met by the output. They do not specify details expressed in terms of the control flow of the executing machine but of the mathematical relations between the declared objects and their properties. Two broad categories of declarative languages are functional languages and logical languages. The principle behind functional languages (like Haskell) is to not allow side effects, which makes it easier to reason about programs like mathematical functions.

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